Vedic Astrology History

Course Content




Part 1: Vedas: Understanding traditional texts


Part 2: Brahmanas


Part 3: Transition to the Common Era


Part 4: Core Traditional Horoscopic Astrology Texts
  • 01 Classical Jyotish Texts

    Classics books on Indian astrology 

    [Work in Progress by Gaura Hari dāsa]


    The following is a list of the standard classical books on Indian astrology with their corresponding authors and the year/century that they were ‘written’ according to scholars.
    A more comprehensive list of available texts (though lacking dates) is available on wikipedia’s Jyotish Shastra page.

    Book Author Year
    Vedāṅga Jyotiṣa Lagadha 1900 BC
    Garga Horā Sage Garga 1 CE[1]
    Yavana Jātaka Sphujidhvaja 2 CE
    Upadeśa Sūtras Sage Jaimini 4-7 CE[2]
    Bṛhat Saṁhittā Varahāmihira 6 CE[3]
    Bṛhāt Jatakā Varahāmihira 6 CE[4]
    Horā Sārā Pṛtthuyaśas 6 CE[5]
    Horā Ratna Bala Bhadra 6-7 CE
    Bṛhat Parāśara Horā Śāstra Sage Parāśara 7-8 CE[6]
    Sārāvalī Kalyāna Verma 10 CE[7]
    Bhāvārtha Ratnakāra Ramanuja 11 CE[8]
    Phaladīpikā Mantreśvara 13 CE[9]
    Sarvārtha Cintāmaṇi Vyakanteśa Śarma 13 CE
    Chamatkāra Cintāmani Bhatta Nārāyaṇa 14 CE[10]
    Jātaka Bharanam Dhundirāja 15 CE
    Jatakā Parijatā Vaidyanātha 15 CE[11]
    Mānasagari Harji 16 CE[12]
    Uttara Kalāmṛta Kālīdāsa 16-17 CE[13]
    Jātakalankara Gaṇeśa 16 CE[14]
    Praśna Marga Harihara 1649 CE[15]
    Sanketa nīdhī Ramadayalu 1860 CE[16]
    Jātaka Tattva Mahādeva 1874 CE[17]
    Bhṛgu Sūtras Sage Bhṛgu

    Back to Course Index

    [1] Hellenism in ancient India – Gauranga Nath Banerjee.


    [3] Translation of N. Chidambaran Iyer

    [4] Translation of prof. P.S. Sastri

    [5] Translation of R. Santhanam

    [6] This is just the date of the oldest manuscript, but Varahāmihira quotes Parāśara as one of the astrologers that he studied which makes BPHS older than just 7-8 century CE.

    [7] Translation of R. Santhanam

    [8] Some people say that this books was written by Śrī Rāmanujācharya which lived in 11-12 century.

    [9] Translation of Dr. G. S. Kapoor

    [10] Translation of Brij Behari Lal Sharma

    [11] Translation of V. Subramanya Sastri

    [12] Translation and commentary of P.K. Vasudev.

    [13] Translation of Prof. P.S. Sastri

    [14] Translation of Dr K.S. Charak

    [15] Translation of B.V. Raman

    [16] Translation of Dr. G.S. Kapoor

    [17] Translation of V. Subramanya Sastri

    History Home

  • 02 Parashara and Jaimini 1

    I have spoken regularly on the relation of Parashara and Jaimini which falls on deaf ears to those who don’t actually read the texts. So here we have put together a comparison showing the verses from the Jaimini Sutras and their correlates in throughout Brihat Parashara Hora Shastra.

    Previous discussion on blog

    [Below is a Work in Progress by Frank Vasquez, copyright Science of Light]

    This comparison has utilized Sanjay Rath’s translation of Jaimini Upadesa Sutras and Santanam’s translation of Brihat Parāśara Horā Śāstra, including his śloka numbering which varies from text to text.  I have used Jaimini as the basis from which to structure the comparison. Any additional information from Parāśara has been incorporated both in the comparison, if relevant, or as an additional comment if the topic has not been covered by Jaimini. Since Santanam’s translation groups together large parts of ślokas I have often referenced the individual sutras form Jaimini back to the block of ślokas where the ideas can be found in Santanam’s version of BPHS for ease of reference within the available version. Planets have also been abbreviated in interest of space using the common associations ( Su = Sun, Mo = Moon, Ma = Mars, Me = Mercury, Ju = Jupiter, Ve = Venus, Sa = Saturn, Ra = Rahu, Ke = Ketu)

    JAIMINI 1.1

    The entire first quarter of the first chapter of Jaimini has direct correlations to Parāśara. This lays out many key concepts such as rāśi aspects, carakāraka, argalā, and ārūḍha. In many cases we see Jaimini highly condensing information given by Parāśara, who often elaborates more on the details of these and other concepts in later sections, thereby calling into question the idea that somehow these elements from Jaimini were “placed” into Parāśara’s text.

    1.1.1 Opening invocation to the text. 1.1-1.8 Maitreya asking Parāśara to teach him the science of horā.
    1.1.2 Sign aspects explained. Fixed/moveable signs are aspected by and aspect all moveable/fixed signs except one next to it. Dual signs aspect each other. 8.1-8.3 Sign aspects explained same as Jaimini.
    1.1.3 Planets aspect the same signs as those they are in. The idea of sammukha rāśi is embedded here, which is the sign aspect directly across from itself and which is owned by the same planet except for the luminaries and Saturn. 8.4-8.6 Emphasis given to mention planets aspects per sign it is in. Additional information on drawing an aspectual diagram also given in ślokas 8.6-8.9.

    *planetary aspects given by pāda for same chapter in Sharma’s translation Śloka 9.10-16 but missing in Santhanam’s version.

    1.1.4 Argalā concept introduced. Signs/planets in 4th,2nd,11th from a sign intervene in its affairs. 31.1-31.9 Main argalā concepts given in 31.2 – 31.9. Additional concepts of special argalā and effects elaborated in 31.10- 31.17 not seen in Jaimini.
    1.1.5 Malefic signs/planets in 3rd from a sign/planet also intervene. See 31.2-31.9.
    1.1.6 Signs/planets in 10th,12th, and 3rd from sign/planet obstruct those giving argalā in 4-2-11 See 31.2-31.9.
    1.1.7 One must assess the strength of argalā and intervention to see which is stronger and giving results. Strength is in Chapter 2.3 See 31.2-31.9.


    Secondary argalā is seen in the 5th house and is obstructed by the 9th house. See 31.2-31.9.
    1.1.9 Argalā reckoning from Ketu/sign occupied by him is done in reverse. See 31.2-31.9.
    1.1.10 Planet with the highest longitude anywhere in the chart is called the ātmakāraka or soul significator. This is part of the carakāraka (temporal significator) scheme.  This is decided on degrees, minutes, and seconds if necessary. There is a 7 and 8 carakāraka scheme, one with and without Rāhu, who is reckoned from the end of the sign. If planets have the same longitude both take the signification and the next slot is filled by the natural kāraka. 32.1 – 32.8 Kāraka schemes mentioned. Ātmakāraka defined and method of reckoning by degrees, minutes, seconds, etc. Both Parāśara and Jaimini recommend 8 carakāraka scheme.
    1.1.11 The ātmakāraka ( AK) indicates the Iṣṭadevatā and is strongly connected to the individuals soul and hence its bondage or emancipation. It has a pre-emanate position in the horoscope, like a king, and can bring either great suffering or help depending on disposition. 32.9- 32.11 Supreme importance of AK given.
    1.1.12 The second highest longitude planet is the amtyākāraka (AmK) or minister. 32.12 – 32.17 The other kārakas are defined and 7 carakāraka scheme mentioned.
    1.1.13 The third highest longitude is the brātṛkāraka (BK) or co-born. See 32.12-17.
    1.1.14 The fourth highest longitude is called the mātṛkāraka ( MK) or mother. See 32.12-17.
    1.1.15 The fifth highest longitude planet is called the pitṛkāraka ( PiK) or father. See 32.12-17.
    1.1.16 The sixth highest longitude planet is called the purtrakāraka (PK) or child. See 32.12-17.
    1.1.17 The 7th highest longitude planet is called the gnatikāraka ( GK) or relative. See 32.12-17.
    1.1.18 The 8th highest longitude planet is called the darakāraka ( DK) or spouse. See 32.12-17.
    1.1.19 Mention is made of 7 carakāraka scheme used by some that excludes Rāhu and merges the MK and PK. See 32.12-17.
    1.1.20 Mars is a natural significator for younger brother, sister, brother-in-law, sister-in-law, mother. * Ślokas 20-24 are used for longevity matters. 32.18-32.21 BPHS generally agrees with these planetary kārakas (Jaimini 1.1.20-24) but various commentators have slight variations of BPHS associations.
    1.1.21 Mercury signifies maternal uncles, aunts, and all maternal relatives. See 32.18-32.21
    1.1.22 Jupiter signifies paternal grandparents and relatives, husband for females, and children. See 32.18-32.21
    1.1.23 Venus signifies wife for males, father and mother in-law, maternal grandparents. See 32.18-32.21
    1.1.24 Saturn signifies prosperity and evils to elders and elder brothers specifically. See 32.18-32.21
    32.22-32.34 BPHS includes additional information on kāraka including houses form planets (32.22-24), yogakārakas (25-30), and the kārakas of the houses ( 21-34).
    1.1.25-26 Find sign daśā periods by counting from sign to its lord, zodiacal if odd and reverse if even. Count is inclusive. 46.155-156 BPHS translation names this cara daśā.
    1.1.27 There are exceptions to this rule. 46.157 BPHS notes the fixed signs are counted opposite of the above. If the  lord is exalted a year is added, subtracted if debilitated. Ra-Sa are lords of Aquarius, Ke-Ma are lords of Scorpio and if both these lords in a sign it contributes 12 years. If one is placed elsewhere determine from the separate co-lord. If both are placed in different signs, stronger sign determines the daśā. If both are equally strong, the larger period should be adopted.
    1.1.28 Normally the count previously found gives daśā period of the sign in years. This is used for human horoscopes and must be modified for other charts. 46.158-167 BPHS gives same assignment of years in addition to more detailed explanation of calculating the daśā.
    1.1.29 Each daśā has 12 equal antardaśā of the 12 signs. See 46.158-167
    1.1.30 Ārūḍha Lagna and other ārūḍha are found by counting from lagna to ruler of sign in question, and that many signs from the ruler. For Ke/Ra the planet that determines daśā of the sign is one that determines ārūḍha of the sign (Scorpio/Aquarius). 29.1-29.3 Basic ārūḍha calculations given, same as Jaimini.
    1.1.31 If lord of sign is in the 4th from it, the 4th becomes the ārūḍha. 29.4-5 Exceptions given of 4th and 7th placements.
    1.1.32 If lord of a sign is in the 7th from it, the 10th house becomes ārūḍha. See.29.4-5.
    29.6 – 29.37 BPHS gives many more details on ārūḍha including planetary ārūḍha and effects of placements from ārūḍha lagna.
    1.1.33 Signs and houses in this text are indicated by the kaṭapayādi varga system. Kaṭapayādi is unique to Jaimini and deciphering the text, written in dense sutra form.
    1.1.34 This does not apply to planets, which are referred to directly. N/A
    1.1.35 The Horā and other divisional charts should be studied from standard texts. Ch. 6 & 7 BPHS gives us the standard definitions and deities of 16 divisional charts which Jaimini hints at here though does not elaborate upon.

    JAIMINI 2.2

    This section largely focuses on various placements of the navāṁśa. Once again Parāśara and Jaimini are largely in agreement, save for the areas noted below.

    1.2.1 The results of svāmśa will be described and refers to the navāṁśa of lagna. Kārakāṁśa is navāṁśa of AK. 33.1 According to Rath, Parāśara uses term svāmśa to describe both kārakāṁśa and the D9 lagna.
    1.2.2 Aries navāṁśa brings troubles from rats, cats, etc. 33.2-33.8 Jaimini follows Parāśara’s teachings of signs except as noted below by Rath.
    1.2.3 Taurus navāṁśa shows troubles or happiness form quadrupeds. See 33.2-33.8
    1.2.4 Gemini navāṁśa shows problems like skin issues and weight. See 33.2-33.8
    1.2.5 Cancer navāṁśa shows trouble from water diseases, hydrophobia, leprosy. See 33.2-33.8
    1.2.6 Leo navāṁśa shows danger  from dogs, tigers, and other large canines. See 33.2-33.8
    1.2.7 Virgo navāṁśa shows trouble from fires, weight, skin infections, etc. See 33.2-33.8
    1.2.8 Libra navāṁśa shows trouble from trade and business. See 33.2-33.8 *Parāśara adds he will be a skillful trader dealing with or making robes.
    1.2.9 Scorpio navāṁśa shows problem from watery diseases, reptiles, snakes, shortage of mother’s milk. See 33.2-33.8
    1.2.10 Sagittarius navāṁśa shows danger from accidents and a fall from a height. See 33.2-33.8
    1.2.11 Capricorn navāṁśa shows danger from aquatic creatures, birds, spirits, skin issues, and psychic disorders. See 33.2-33.8 *Parāśara adds that there will be gains from water dwelling creatures, conch, pearls, etc.

    Nature of planets also have influence, Su shows birds, Mo-Ve are water, etc.

    1.2.12 Aquarius navāṁśa shows construction of lakes, tanks, garden, roads, temples, etc. or problems here If negative. See 33.2-33.8
    1.2.13 Pisces navāṁśa indicates law abiding, religious and righteous persons.

    The above issues arise if AK is afflicted. Physical problems are indicated by navāṁśa of the lord of bādhaksthāna.

    See 33.2-33.8 *Parāśara adds kārakāṁśa in Pisces shows moksha.


    N/A 33.9-11 If only benefics are in or aspect svāmśa or angles/trines the native will be a king or have wealth/learning respectively. Mixed planets give mixed results.  Upakethu In strength gives emancipation ( may be a corruption of translation here for Ke).
    N/A 33.12 If AK is in division of Mo, Ma, or Ve person will go with others vices. Otherwise the opposite.
    1.2.14 The Su in swāmśa gives government, political, or social service. 33.13-18 Jaimini largely agrees with Parāśara on details of planets in swāmśa.
    1.2.15 Full Mo and Ve in swāmśa gives luxuries and education See 33.13.18  *Parāśara says Mo gives this and Ve confirms it.
    1.2.16 Ma in swāmśa gives knowledge of metallurgy, arms, warfare, etc. See 33.13 – 33.18
    1.2.17 Me in swāmśa gives knowledge of business, trade, sculpting, social & legal areas. See 33.13 – 33.18
    1.2.18 Ju in swāmśa gives philosophy, religion/priest, and one who excels in anything due to intelligence. See 33.13 – 33.18
    1.2.19 Ve in swāmśa gives govt./political position, or a passionate/virile person. See 33.13 – 33.18
    1.2.20 Sa in swāmśa gives success in any activity and fame. See 33.13 – 33.18
    1.2.21 Ra in swāmśa gives a bowman, thief, earning by cheating, handling of poisons/dangerous chemicals, medicines, metals and manufacturing activities. See 33.13 – 33.18
    1.2.22 Ke in swāmśa shows one who will earn through elephants (modern diesel trucks and transport vehicles), thieves, swindlers. See 33.13 – 33.18   NOTE FROM RATH: profession rare from kārakāṁśa as AK is soul desire. Lagnāmśa is that which is easily attained and better for vocational abilities but D10 holds key.
    1.2.23 Su + Ra in swāmśa show death due to snake venom. 33.19 – 33.22 Parāśara details similar results of Su + Ra.
    1.2.24 Benefic aspect ensures this will not happen. See 33.19 – 33.22 Parāśara notes malefic aspects bring death.
    1.2.25 If same combo is aspected/conjoined by benefic native is a doctor curing the same. See 33.19 – 33.22
    1.2.26 Ma alone with this combo shows a person who burns other houses. See 33.19 – 33.22  Parāśara adds Me aspect as opposed to Ma will not cause said effects.
    1.2.27 Ve aspecting the fire combo gives a firefighter. See 33.19 – 33.22
    1.2.28 Ju aspecting the fire combo shows one who sets fire to own house or a neighbor. See 33.19 – 33.22
    1.2.22A Additional stanza from other source:  Sa+Ra in swāmśa give seller or consumer of aphrodisiacs. N/A
    1.2.22B Additional stanza: Moon in 4th from swāmśa gives a sailor. N/A
    1.2.22C Additional stanza: Aspect of Ve on this Mo will surely give this. N/A
    1.2.29 Gulika in swāmśa makes native consume poison or poison others (i.e. psychotropic substances). Ma aspect shows a seller, Ju shows self consumption. Ve/Su prevents. 33.23- 33.24 Jaimini follows Parāśara here
    1.2.30 Mo aspecting/with Gulika in swāmśa shows theft or receipt of stolen wealth. See 33.23-33.24
    1.2.31 Me aspecting/with Gulika in swāmśa shows diseases of private parts. See 33.23-33.24
    1.2.32 Ke aspecting/conjoing the same shows ear problems. 33.25- 33.29 Jaimini largely follows Parāśara who adds that malefic should join/aspect.
    1.2.33 Ve conjoining the same Ke gives asceticism, religious leanings, an initiate. See 33.25- 33.29
    1.2.34 Me and Sa influencing the same Ke shows impotency. See 33.25- 33.29
    1.2.35 Me and Ve aspecting same Ketu shows a mimic, talkative person, or born to a concubine/servant. See 33.25- 33.29. Parāśara adds the child will belong to a remarried female.
    1.2.36 Sa aspecting the Ve and Ketu, gives a tapaswi or a servant. See 33.25- 33.29
    1.2.37 Sa alone aspecting Ke shows a fraud in garb of sanyasi. See 33.25- 33.29


    Sun + Venus in kārakāṁśa give political office. See 33.25- 33.29
    Jaimini diverges from Parāśara on his order of the results from kārakāṁśa here, though results are largely similar. 33.30 – 33.99 Parāśara clearly lays out results from kārakāṁśa starting from 2nd from kārakāṁśa through the 12th, and then additional considerations. Correlations to Jaimini given below.


    1.2.39 Me conjoining/aspecting 10th from swāmśa show results like Sa (see 1.2.20). 33.57-60 Jaimini and Parāśara diverge some here.
    1.2.40 Benefic influence on 10th from swāmśa gives stable fortunes. See 33.57 – 33.60  Parāśara adds this also makes one serious, strong, and intelligent. Malefics harm business.  Me and Ve give trade success.  Su, Mo, Ju gives rājyoga.
    1.2.41 Su in 10th from kārakāṁśa aspected by Ju gives cow herder, milkman, animal husbandry. See 33.57 – 33.  This contrast to Parāśara views that Su, Mo, Ju give raj yoga.
    1.2.42 Mo/Ve associating with 4th from swāmśa give a palatial residence.

    Note: compare this with stanza 1.2.22C from external source – does every sailor have a mansion?

    33.33 – 33.35 Jaimini follows Parāśara here.
    1.2.43 Exalted planets in fourth give the same. See 33.33 – 33.35
    1.2.44 Sa + Ra in 4th give stones and rocks or material. See 33.33 – 33.35
    1.2.45 Ma+Ke in 4th show clay and bricks. See 33.33 – 33.35
    1.2.46 Ju in 4th shows wood. See 33.33 – 33.35
    1.2.47 Su in 4th shows thatched straw or grass. See 33.33 – 33.35
    1.2.48 Benefics 9th from swāmśa make one righteous, honest, and devoted to teachers/elders. 33.33 – 33.35 Jaimini largely follows Parāśara.
    1.2.49 Malefics there do the opposite. See 33.33 – 33.35
    1.2.50 Sa + Ra in 9th one betrays elders/teachers. See 33.33 – 33.35
    1.2.51 Su + Ju in 9th  native is confident of elders/teachers. 33.33 – 33.35 Parāśara adds that Ve + Ma in the 9th from kārakāṁśa that illicit lover will die. Me + Mo in 9th cause imprisonment due to illicit relation. Ju alone in 9th shows excessive passion/sex.
    1.2.52 Ve or Ma owning 2nd from swāmśa gives passion/illicit relations. 33.30 – 33.31 Jaimini follows Parāśara.
    1.2.53 Ve or Ma joining/aspecting 2nd makes one passionate till end of life. See 33.30 – 33.31
    1.2.54 Ke associating with 2nd kills passion. (unless Me obstructs) See 33.30 – 33.31
    1.2.55 Ju in/aspecting 2nd makes one sensuous with Ma/Ve influence. See 33.30 – 33.31
    1.2.56 Ra (w/Ma/Va) in 2nd destroys wealth due to passion. See 33.30 – 33.31
    1.2.57 Ju or Mo in 7th form swāmśa gives good looking spouse 33.47 – 33.48 Slight differences here. In addition to below Parāśara mentions Venus giving a sensuous wife.
    1.2.58 Ra in 7th brings a widow/er in marriage. See 33.47 – 33.48
    1.2.59 Sa in 7th brings older spouse or  traditional, dogmatic, in poor health. See 33.47 – 33.48
    1.2.60 Ma in 7th gives spouse with defective limbs. *Not mentioned by Parāśara
    1.2.61 Su in 7th gives spouse that is liked by family. See 33.47 – 33.48 Parāśara notes that Su shows spouse confined to domestic chores. Others say “learned” found to be true.
    1.2.62 Me in 7th gives a talented spouse  knowing of fine arts. See 33.47 – 33.48
    1.2.63 Mo in 4th the first mating (with women in previous stanza) will be in an open place. (Su in the  garden, Ma wall or obstruction, Me park or playground, Ju temple, Ve bathroom/bed, Sa + Ra dirty place. Exaltation, aspects considered too) *This stanza does not appear to be in BPHS.

    RATH NOTE: Principal here is 10th from an activity is the place. So 10th from 2nd is 11th where illicit relations happen. In the same way swāmśa shows vocation, 10th is place where it happens.

    1.2.64 Malefics in the third show courage & valor. 33.32 Jaimini concurs with Parāśara.
    1.2.65 Benefics in 3rd show cowardice. See 33.32
    1.2.66 Malefics in 3rd and 6th make a good farmer or living through agriculture. (later mentions armed forces too) *Absent from Parāśara.

    RATH NOTE: 3rd also shows intelligence and show direction of skill. Ve 3rd from swāmśa gives artistic, Me writer, Ma weapons/firearms. 6th to do with service and agriculture was most common means then. Silent about benefics in 6th and other service shown by them.

    1.2.67 Ju in 9th shows a big landlord or distinguished person. 33. 50 -33.56 * Santanam translation says Ju alone related to 9th gives addiction to sensual enjoyments.
    1.2.68 Benefics in 12th from swāmśa take soul to auspicious place after death. 33.63-33.74 Jaimini largely follows Parāśara, who adds malefics in 12th show expenses on bad activities while benefics give legitimate expenses.
    1.2.69 Ke in 12th gives final emancipation to the soul. See 33.63 – 33.74. Parāśara notes exalted planet or OH or natural benefics in 12th from kārakāṁśa, soul goes to good place after death. If Ke there and only benefic aspects emancipation will be obtained.
    1.2.70 If Ke is in the 4th or 12th from kārakāṁśa final emancipation will be granted. See 33.63 – 33.74
    1.2.71 IF Ke is in the 12th from kārakāṁśa in Aries or Sag with benefic influence one is led towards emancipation. See 33.63 – 33.74
    1.2.72 Malefics in 4th/12th deny emancipation (excluding Sun). See 33.63 – 33.74
    1.2.73 Mo in 12th shows Gouri devotion. See 33.63 – 33.74
    1.2.74 Ve in 12th shows Lakṣhmī devotion See 33.63 – 33.74. Parāśara adds native will be prosperous.
    1.2.75 Ma in 12th shows devotion to Skanda. See 33.63 – 33.74
    1.2.76 Me or Sa in 12th shows Viṣṇu devotion. See 33.63 – 33.74
    1.2.77 Ju in 12th shows  Samba Śhiva devotion. See 33.63 – 33.74
    1.2.78 Ra in 12th shows Durgā or Tamāsi devotion. See 33.63 – 33.74
    1.2.79 Ke in 12th shows Ganapati or Skanda devotion. See 33.63 – 33.74
    1.2.80 Sa in 12th in malefic sign shows black magic and dark forms of worship. See 33.63 – 33.74
    1.2.81 Ve in 12 in malefic sign gives similar results. See 33.63 – 33.74
    1.2.82 This religiosity can also be seen 6th from AmK See 33.63 – 33.74
    1.2.83 Two malefics in 1-5-9 gives expertise in mantra and occult knowledge. 33.75 – 33.76 Parāśara also mentions these placements as being from kārakāṁśa.
    1.2.84 Malefics in trines when aspected by other malefics gives expertise in black magic. See 33.75 – 33.76
    1.2.85 Malefics in trines aspects by benefics gives white magic. See 33.75 – 33.76
    1.2.86 Mo in swāmśa aspected by Ve gives capability to deal with liquids and chemicals. 33.77 – 33.85.5 Jaimini is following Parāśara here with some slight variations.
    1.2.87 Me aspecting Mo in swāmśa gives a doctor or medicine related work. See 33.77 – 33.85.5
    1.2.88 Mo in 4th from swāmśa aspected by Ve gives leukoderma, leprosy,etc. See 33.77 – 33.85.5
    1.2.89 Ma aspecting Mo in 4th gives white leprosy. See 33.77 – 33.85.5
    1.2.90 Ke aspecting Mo in 4th gives blue-ish leprosy. See 33.77 – 33.85.5
    1.2.91 Ra+Ma in 4th or 5th from swāmśa shows tuberculosis. See 33.77 – 33.85.5
    1.2.92 If Mo also influences this, the disease is sure to occur. See 33.77 – 33.85.5
    1.2.93 Ma in 4th/5th from swāmśa shows boils, ulcers, cuts, etc. See 33.77 – 33.85.5
    1.2.94 Ke in 4th/5th from swāmśa shows water diseases and glandular issues (thyroid). See 33.77 – 33.85.5
    1.2.95 Ra + Gulika in 4th/5th shows afflictions from poisons. See 1.2.29 for more. See 33.77 – 33.85.5. Parāśara gives a broader definition as either a doctor who can handle poisons or one who ingests them.
    1.2.96 Sa in 5th gives an archer. Modern age could include missiles, spears, etc. Parāśara adds 4th to this and below placements as well according to Santanam. See 33.77 – 33.85.5
    1.2.97 Ke in 5th gives watch making ability (or other precision equipment in modern day). See 33.77 – 33.85.5
    1.2.98 Me in 5th gives an ascetic, religious one, or one who uses a walking stick. See 33.77 – 33.85.5
    1.2.99 Ra in 5th gives a metalingist or heavy engineering. See 33.77 – 33.85.5
    1.2.100 Su in 5th gives a swordsmen, one who carries a blade/knife. See 33.77 – 33.85.5
    1.2.101 Ma in 5th gives a lancer or spear wielder. See 33.77 – 33.85.5
    1.2.102 Mo + Ju in swāmśa or 5th from it gives an author. 33.85 – 33.86 Jaimini follows Parāśara here
    1.2.103 Ve ( instead of Mo+Ju) gives a less capable author . See 33.85 – 33.86
    1.2.104 Me in the same shows an author but with even less capabilities. See 33.85 – 33.86 RATH NOTE: # of benefics in swāmśa or 5th determine capabilities with Mo ( mind) as most important then Ju, Ve, Me.
    1.2.105 Ve in swāmśa or 5th indicates a poet, eloquent speaker, or knowledgeable critic. 33.87 – 33.92.5 Jaimini follows Parāśara here.
    1.2.106 Ju in swāmśa or 5th shows a knowledge genius and author. See 33.87 – 33.92.5
    1.2.107 But Ju in 1/5 does not give eloquence. See 33.87 – 33.92.5
    1.2.108 But Ju does give a grammarian, philosopher, knowledge of scripture, etc. See 33.87 – 33.92.5
    1.2.109 Sa in 1/5 makes one nervous in assembly (i.e. stage fright). See 33.87 – 33.92.5
    1.2.110 Me in 1/5 shows an interpreter of texts, mīmāṃsā. See 33.87 – 33.92.5
    1.2.111 Ma in 1/5 gives a logician. See 33.87 – 33.92.5. Parāśara adds legal knowledge and jurisprudence.
    1.2.112 Mo in 1/5 gives a singer, knowledge of Sāṃkhya & Yoga philosophy, history, rhetoric, music. See 33.87 – 33.92.5
    1.2.113 Su in 1/5 gives knowledge of Veda/Gita. See 33.87 – 33.92.5. Parāśara adds knowledge of music and Vedānta.
    1.2.114 Ke in 1/5 gives mathematical ability. (important for astrology too, Ra gives research and math capabilities). See 33.87 – 33.92.5
    1.2.115 Ju influencing above planets in 1/5 gives all around knowledge and proficiency in at least one branch. See 33.87 – 33.92.5. Parāśara adds these learning’s will be by inheritance.
    1.2.116 Results of 1.2.102-115 are also applicable to 2nd house. See 33.87 – 33.92.5.
    1.2.117 Some are of the opinion 1.2.102-115 also apply to third house. Parāśara notes in above śloka besides 1/5 these work for 2/3 as well as lord of swāmśa. Confirm from both D9 lagna and kārakāṁśa, though lagna is more pronounced. Jaimini has not agreed to inclusion of 3rd house.
    1.2.118 Ke in 2nd influenced by malefics gives stammering and other speech defects. 33.93 – 33.93.5 Parāśara includes third house as well. Sanjay recommend 2/5 as knowledge houses per Jaimini while 3rd only through argalā.
    1.2.119 Malefics in 2nd & 8th from lagna, AL, and swāmśa cause kemadruma yoga ( poverty) 33.94 – 33.99 Jaimini follows Parāśara. NOTE: From lagna or D9 lagna effects are through life, from AL is a down fall, from kārakāṁśa one detests wealth and may be a renunciate.
    1.2.120 If Mo aspects this combo in 2/8 abject poverty is caused. See 33.94 – 33.99
    1.2.121 Results manifest during daśā of signs or planet involved. See 33.94 – 33.99

    JAIMINI 3.3

    This section defines results from the Ārūḍha Lagna, as well as other yogas from various points in the chart. While largely similar in both texts, in the last part of this section Jaimini appears to be condensing  the Parāśara chapters on yogas into more concise principals. There are many more additional yogas given by Parāśara not discussed by Jaimini across chapters 35-42 in BPHS, though often repeat similar placements and are a more complete teaching on the subject on the whole. Please see those chapters for further details not discussed below.

    1.3.1 Results of/from Ārūḍha Lagna (AL) enunciated. Parāśara includes the following info after giving ārūḍhapāda calculations which Jaimini previously defined in section 1.
    1.3.2 Planet influencing the 11th brings prosperity. 29.8 – 29.11 Jaimini follows Parāśara.
    1.3.3 Benefics show gains through acceptable means. See 29.8 – 29.11
    1.3.4 Malefics indicates gains through questionable means. See 29.8 – 29.11
    1.3.5 Exaltations, own sign, etc. considered. See 29.8 – 29.11
    1.3.6 Planets influencing 12th from AL cause losses. 29.12 Same.
    N/A 29.13 – 29.15 Parāśara outlines nature of gains using argalā on 11th and 12th house placements.
    N/A 29.16- 29.17 Benefics and malefics in 12th can cause both gains and losses through good and bad means.
    1.3.7 Su, Ra, or Ve here show loss/expense due to king. 29.18 Same.
    1.3.8 If Mo also aspects above combo, losses are sure to happen. 29.18 Same.
    1.3.9 Me influencing 12th shows losses from litigation, cousins, relatives, etc. 29.19 Parāśara says a benefic influence will cause expenses through paternal relatives, while a malefic influence will shows losses through disputes.
    1.3.10 Ju influencing 12th shows expenses from taxes, tolls, etc. 29.20 Parāśara adds expenses from one’s own.
    1.3.11 Ma and/or Sa influencing 12th shows losses through younger/elder co-borns respectively. 29.21 Same.
    1.3.12 Sources of expenses above will show sources of gains if same planet is in the 11th. Note other indications of planet may apply too. 29.22 Same.
    1.3.13 Ra/Ke in 7th form AL shows diseases in stomach or middle region of body. 29.23 Same.
    1.3.14 Ke in 2nd shows premature grey hair or elongated penis. 29.24 Parāśara adds influence of another malefic as well as making the native adventurous.
    1.3.15 Mo,Ju, and/or Ve in 2nd give prosperity. 29.28 Note this śloka comes after 29.27 in Parāśara.
    Jaimini does not use 7th placements here. 29.25 Mo, Ju, and/or Ve in 7th from AL makes one rich.
    Jaimini does not use 7th placements here. 29.26 Exalted planets 7th form AL make native affluent and famous.
    1.3.16 Exalted planets in 2nd give prosperity. 29.27 Parāśara makes the distinction that yogas applicable to 7th form AL also applicable to 2nd form AL here.
    1.3.17 Stanzas pertaining to swāmśa (previous chapter) also apply to AL. 29.29 Same. Shows swāmśa is a relative concept depending on our reference point.
    N/A 29.30 – 29.37 Parāśara makes some general comments on placement from AL. Jaimini largely follows though omits Me 2nd from AL makes one lord of country and Ve 2nd form AL makes one a poet. Other details seen in text.
    1.3.18 Dārapada (A7) in Kendra or kona from AL brings blessings of Sri Devi or prosperity. See. 29.30 – 29.37
    1.3.19 If A7 is in other houses the native is unfortunate. See. 29.30 – 29.37
    1.3.20 A7 in a Kendra/kona from AL gives matrimonial harmony and physical compatibility. See. 29.30 – 29.37
    1.3.21 A7 in 6-8-12 from AL makes couple inimical. See. 29.30 – 29.37
    1.3.22 Unobstructed argalā of lagna or 7th gives good fortune. See. 29.30 – 29.37? Parāśara seems to define this here but in terms of placement versus argalā.
    1.3.23 Unobstructed argalā of benefics on lagna or 7th give prosperity. See. 29.30 – 29.37?
    N/A See. 29.30 – 29.37 Parāśara gives more hints to using AL in reference to other placements such as D2, and D12 in deducing results.
    1.3.24 Lagna, Horā Lagna (HL), and Ghaṭīkā Lagna (GL) influenced by one planet gives rāja yoga. 39.12 Parāśara describes this in his Rāja Yoga chapters, previous ślokas were from Ārūḍha pāda chapter. Note stanzas 1 – 11 are not touched on by Jaimini and Parāśara includes numerous yogas not mentioned by Jaimini as mentioned above.
    N/A 39.13-39.14 If ṣaḍvarga ascendant aspected by same planet, rājyoga is formed according to aspect being full, half, or 1/4.
    1.3.25 Influence of said planet could be to 1st or 7th of lagna, HL, GL in rāśi, D9, or D3 charts. 39.15 Similar though Parāṣara does not mention 7th.
    1.3.26 If either one or two of above chart/house combinations is not aspected by planet, rājyoga is reduced proportionately. Similar concept covered by 39.13 – 39.14
    1.3.27 Above rules of reduction is applicable to rājyogas in D9 and D3 as well. (rāśi is stronger) Parāśara mentions D3 and D9 for spouse and co-born, but most astrologers use these three to evaluate the whole horoscope.
    1.3.28 If Mo is influenced by Venus or if Venus is 3/11 from Mo vāhana yoga is formed. 41.41 Parāśara gives a similar combination as an indicator for rājyoga.
    1.3.29 Ma, Ve, + Ke in mutual aspect or conjunction or in3/11 form vaitanika yoga. N/A
    1.3.30 Rājayoga if benefics are in 2,4,5,8,9 from AL 40.9 – 40.10 Benefics in 2,4,5 from the ascendant lord or kārakāṁśa native will be a king, or if malefics in 3,6 from these places same. Mixed planets give mixed results.
    1.3.31 Malefics in 3,6 from AL give rajayoga. 40.7 Malefics in 3 and 6 from lagna or kārakāṁśa makes one an army chief.
    1.3.32 Rājayogas are shown in the same way by planets from lord of AL or its 7th. N/A
    1.3.33 Mixed planets reduce Rājayoga. N/A
    1.3.34 Malefics in 2,4,5,8,9 or benefics in 3,6 give poverty. N/A
    1.3.35 Ju, Mo, or Ve in 5th from any of above houses ( AL,7th from, pāka ārūḍha, etc.) person gains position in government. N/A
    1.3.36 Malefics in 3,6 person joins armed forces. 40.7 Malefics in 3 and 6 from AL, AK, or lagna makes one an army chief. Similar concerns in Jaimini 1.3.31
    1.3.37 Lord of the 1st house from Lagna or AK in 3/6 or if lord of 3/6 aspects 1st house, or if lord of 5th aspects 1st house native aspires for knowledge. (dhīmānta yoga) N/A
    1.3.38 If lord of 4th aspects lagna the native is happy and content. N/A
    1.3.39 If lord of 8th aspects lagna person is poverty stricken. 42.4 Parāśara differs slightly, though mentions LL or Mo in conjunction with 8th lord causing poverty, along with other combination of 6-8-12 lords.
    1.3.40 If lord of 12th aspects lagna, person wastes money. 44.1 Parāśara gives some more details to the 12th here.
    1.3.41 Aspect of LL on lagna gives physical felicity. N/A
    1.3.42 From lagna or AL, if equal number of planets in any of follow houses 2/12.5/9,8/6,3/11,4/10 bandhana yoga is causes giving arrest, imprisonment, etc. This is a hint to see the argalā for rāja yogas.
    1.3.43 If benefics aspect bandhana yoga troubles are temporary while malefics indicate punishment like beating. N/A
    1.3.44 Ve and gaunapada influenced by Ra and Su causes blindness. (could mean lagna and 5th as well according to translation, some say UL). N/A
    1.3.45 Ve and/or Mo influencing 1st or 4th house (from lagna, AL,AK) gives luxuries and royalty. 39.14 BPHS says if Ve and Mo in 4th from AK gives royalty.

    JAIMINI 4.4

    This section primarily lays out the upapada lagna (UL) and details from it concerning the spouse as well as other information around children and miscellaneous techniques. While Jaimini and Parāśara are largely in accordance, Jaimini gives some further techniques at the end of the section.

    Sutra Meaning ŚLOKA Meaning
    1.4.1 Ārūḍha of the 12th house (A12) is the upapāda (UL). 30.1 – 30.6 UL defined with details added. If influenced by benefic will have happiness from progeny/spouse, malefic influence causes asceticism which benefics can modify. Sun in friendly sign not malefic,
    1.4.2 2nd from UL has malefic influence native loses wife or renounces the world. 30.7-30.12 Jaimini follows Parāśara.
    1.4.3 (unless weak) Sun is not malefic for UL. See 30.1-30.6
    1.4.4 If 2nd from UL has benefic influence loss of wife may not occur. See 30.7-30.12
    1.4.5 If planet in 2nd is debilitated, wife is harmed. See 30.7-30.12
    1.4.6 If planet is exalted there will be many wives or she is long lived. See 30.7-30.12
    1.4.7 Gemini 2nd form UL shows many wives. See 30.7-30.12
    1.4.8 If 2nd lord is in OH or exalted loss of spouse will die in old age if at all. See 30.7-30.12
    1.4.9 If lord of UL is exalted wife hails from upper class. 30.13 – 30.15 Jaimini follows Parāśara who adds that if 7th lord or Venus is exalted gives same effects, if in own house wife will die at old age.
    1.4.10 If lord of UL is debilitated wife is from lower class. See 30.13 – 30.15
    1.4.11 If benefics join UL the spouse is beautiful (inner beauty – external is 7th). See 30.13-30.15
    1.4.12 If 2nd from UL has Sa + Ra, person may lose or desert spouse due to scandal. 30.16 Parāśara adds if this is in sign of Saturn spouse may become lame, benefics mitigate.
    1.4.13 Ve + Ke in 2nd shows blood disorders. 30.17 same
    1.4.14 Me + Ke in 2nd shows breakage of bones. 30.18 Parāśara adds Ra, Sa, Su cause distress of bones.
    1.4.15 Sa, Ra, & Su gives dangerous fevers. Possible alternative take on śloka 30.18?
    1.4.16 Me + KE in 2nd shows corpulent spouse ( other malefics too) 30.19 – 30.22 Parāśara says Me + Ra gives stout bodied wife.
    1.4.17 If 2nd is Mercury’s sign with Sa or Ma , nasal problems are indicated. See 30.19 – 30.22
    1.4.18 If 2nd is Mars’ sign with Ma or Sa shows the same. See 30.19 – 30.22
    1.4.19 Ju & Sa associating with 2nd show nervous disorders or ear complaints. See 30.19 – 30.22 Parāśara says disorders of ears/eyes to wife for this combination.
    1.4.20 Ju+ Ra in 2nd show dental problems. See 30.19 0 30.22 Parāśara adds Me and Ma in 2nd other than own signs showing the same.
    1.4.21 Sa & Ra in 2nd in Aq & Pi show lameness and flatulence respectively. See 30. 19  – 30.22
    1.4.22 Beneficial aspects on previous conjunctions mitigate problems for the spouse. See 30. 19 – 30.22
    1.4.23 Results of planets in saptāṁśa (D7) will be explained. 30.23 – 30.23.5 Santanam’s translations says these effects ( for following placements) are deduced from natal ascendant, lagna pāda, 7th from UL, and lords thereof.
    1.4.24 Me, Sa, Ve in D7 lagna deny children. 30.25- 30.28 Jaimini and Parāśara have some slightly differing views here. Parāśara uses Sa, Mo, Me from above placements denying children.
    1.4.25 Su, Ra, & Ju in 9th shows many sons. See 30.25 – 30.28
    1.4.26 Mo in 9th gives one son. See 30.25 – 30.28
    1.4.27 If there are planets giving children (Su, Ra, Ju, Mo) and denying (Me, Sa, Ve), then child will be delayed. See 30.25 – 30.28
    1.4.28 Ma & Sa in 9th can show getting a child through others (i.e. adoption). See 30.25 – 30.28 Parāśara adds this can also block the child or brother’s son will come through adoption.
    1.4.29 9th in odd sign gives many children. See 30.25 – 30.28
    1.4.30 9th in an even sign shows few children. See 30.25 – 30.28
    N/A 30.29 – 30.30 Parāśara adds that if Leo is UL aspected by Mo there is few children, if Virgo many.
    1.4.31 Moving reverse in maṇḍūka gati from 9th, lords of signs show particular children. N/A
    1.4.32 Sa or Ra in 3 or 11 shows loss of co-born. 30.31 Same, though states this is seen form Lagna Pāda ( AL) along with results below.
    1.4.33 Ve in 3/11 causes loss of co-born. 30.32 Same, though adds this placement shows it is from an abortion.
    1.4.34 Similar results when Ve aspects UL or 8th from it. See 30.32
    1.4.35 Ma, Ju, Mo, Me in 3/11 give many co-born. 33.33 – 33.36 Jaimini follows Parāśara who adds co-born will be valorous.
    1.4.36 Sa + Ma aspecting 3/11/1 houses destroy co-borns. See 33.33 – 33.36
    1.4.37 If Sa only aspects UL, co-born of spouse will be lost. See 33.33 – 33.36 Parāśara takes this form Lagna Pāda and says native will be spared while co-born will die.
    1.4.38 Ke in 3/11 gives many sisters. See 33.33 – 33.36
    N/A 33.37 If 6th from AL is occupied by a malefic without benefic influence native will be a thief.
    N/A 33.38 If Ra is 7/12 from AL or aspects, native will have spiritual knowledge and be fortunate.
    N/A 33.39 If Me is in AL native will lord over the country, Ju makes him a knower of all things, Ve shows a poet/speaker.
    N/A 33.40 Benefics occupy 2nd from UL or AL native has wealth and is intelligent.
    N/A 33.41 If 2L from UL is in 2n from natal lagna with a malefic person is a thief.
    1.4.39 Ra in 2nd from lord of 7th from UL shows native will have gross dentition. 33.42 – 33.43 Jaimini follows Parāśara.
    1.4.40 Ke in 2nd from lord of 7th from UL causes native to stammer. See 33.42 – 33.43
    1.4.41 Saturn in same position gives ugly face. See 33.42 – 33.43
    1.4.42 Complexion of native is seen from D9 lagna as fair, blue-black, yellowish, or golden brown. N/A
    1.4.43 Deity the native will adore is seen from the BK. N/A
    1.4.44 If only malefics influence the D9 lagna, the child is illegitimate. N/A
    1.4.45 But if D9 lagna is only owned by malefic, this is not the case. N/A
    1.4.46 Ra + Sa in D9 lagna confirm illegitimacy known through scandal. N/A
    1.4.47 Malefics other than Ra + Sa conceal it. N/A
    1.4.48 If these malefics are in house owned by benefic there will be talk but native will be legitimate. N/A
    1.4.49 Two planets in swāmśa ( D9 lagna) make the person leader of his community. N/A

    History Home

    Now, since we have made studying the differences between these texts very simple, please describe the difference between Jaimini and Parashara Astrology.

  • 03 Parashara and Jaimini 2

    JAIMINI 2.1

    This section deals with longevity calculations, which are covered in Parāśara’s longevity chapter  that opens up with three forms of mathematical calculations for longevity in ślokas 1 through 32, namely piṇḍāyu, nisargāyu, and aṁśāyu ( see BPHS for details of these) before detailing the methods starting below with lagna lord, 8L, and others. Rath notes that these mathematical models are often quite inaccurate though both BPHS and Jaimini give some similar and more useful methods as discussed here and in Chapter 3 of Jaimini in much detail. From there we see māraka being defined which Parāsara goes into some detail, though Jaimini is limited on. Instead Jaimini appears to take some of the basic daśā defined by Parāsara, namely sthira, śūla, etc. and shows how to use them in reference to calculating longevity concerns, thereby giving us further indications on what are sparse indications in Parāśara.

    SUTRA Meaning ŚLOKA Meaning
    2.1.1 Longevity is seen from Lagna Lord ( LL ) and 8th lord (8L). ( there are two school of thought on 8th house for āyur stanzas ) 43.33 – 43.40 Parāśara defines LL and 8L placements in addition to Mo/Sa, and Lagna/ HL as discussed following this and in line with Jaimini.
    2.1.2 If LL and 8L are both in movable sign, or one in fixed and other dual, long life is indicated. See 43.33 – 43.40
    2.1.3 IF LL and 8L both in dual signs, or one in fixed and other in movable middle life indicated. If LL and 8l are same, take 8th from 8th for the second lord. See 43.33 – 43.40
    2.1.4 If 8l and LL are both in fixed sign, or if one is in dual and other moveable short life is indicated. See 43.33 – 43.40
    2.1.5 The previous rules are to be applied to signs occupied by Mo and Sa. See 43.33 – 43.40
    2.1.6 Sign occupied by lagna and horā lagna form the third pair. See 43.33 – 43.40
    2.1.7 If two of the three pairs show identical spans that particular longevity is indicated (LL/8L, Mo/Sa, Lagna/HL). See 43.33 – 43.40
    2.1.8 If life span indicated by all three pairs are different that shown by HL/Lagna taken. See 43.33 – 43.40
    2.1.9 If Mo is in lagna or 7th, longevity shown by Mo/Sa is taken. See 43.33 – 43.40
    N/A 43.41-43.44 Long life is considered 120/108/96 if shown by 3/2/1 groups; mid-life 80/72/64 and short life 40/36/32 by similar measure.
    N/A 43.45 – 43.46 Parāśara gives details of planets giving full if in start sign, nothing at end, and middling if in middle of sign with details on adding planets longitudes in this case.
    2.1.10 Sa among the final pair determining longevity results in reduction of life. 43.47 Same.
    2.1.11 Some think that the reverse is true for Saturn’s association. Rath notes for reduction, planets determining āyur should associate with Sa, Sa alone does not reduce. See 43.47
    2.1.12 Reduction does not occur if Sa is in its own sign or exaltation. See 43.47
    2.1.13 Only if Sa is influenced by malefics will reduction of life occur. See 43.47 Santanam’s translation says even if aspected by malefic no change occurs, which could be an error.
    2.1.14 Jupiter unaffiliated in the lagna or 7th gives increase of life. 43.48 Same
    N/A 43. 49 – 43.50 BPHS gives further distinctions for Jupiter’s increase and Saturn’s decrease here.
    N/A 43.51 – 43.58 Parāśara gives specific placements for types of longevity such as bālāriṣṭa, limitless longevity, till the end of yuga, etc. See text for details.
    N/A Much as in the yoga chapters,Jaimini seems to be condensing and modifying some of the indications of BPHS so correlations are not exact. 43.49 – 43.78 Parāśara states good yogas increase life and bad yogas decrease them before detailing many combinations.
    2.1.15 During navāṁśa daśā of a sign (explained separately), if its door ( dwāra – sign itself) and bhāya ( outside – count as many signs from dwāra as gained from lagna) are in malefic signs or afflicted by malefic death is indicated. 46.123– 46.128 While not direct correlation, in the kālacakra section, BPHS mentions malefics being in deha or jīva signs as causing death. These navāṁśa daśā is nakṣatra based and not based on the D9.
    2.1.16 If benefics own/aspect the dwāra and bhāya raśī death may not occur. See 46.123 – 46.128 BPHS also gives indications of various houses after this not seen in Jaimini.
    2.1.17 If 8L is exalted one navāṁśa daśā is gained ( longevity increased by 9 years from original calculations) N/A
    2.1.18 The navāṁśa daśā of the sign having the AL or its lord or 8L or LL or their trines could be death inflicting. N/A
    2.1.19 From ( stronger of) the ascendant and 7th house, the lord of the 8th from this placed in kendra, paṇaphara, āpoklima shows long, middle, short life respectively. 43.71-73 Some say to see this from AK as well but Parāśara does not mention AK. Rath notes Parāśara advises relationship between LL and Sun. If lagnesh is friendly, neutral, or inimically disposed to Sun life is long, mid, short. This seems to apply to 43.67 though is not mentioned in this śloka from Santanam
    2.1.20 If the AK is in the 7th or 9th form lagna life span indicated is reverse. N/A
    2.1.21 For ascertaining āyur yoga, stronger of lagna or 7th must be ascertained. Source of strength in 2.3 N/A
    2.1.22 The 8L in 10, 7, 4 show middle life span. Rath gives lots of clues from tradition here. N/A
    2.1.23 Malefics in 1/7 or 2/1 or 5/9 from lagna cause reduction of life. 43.65 – 43.66 This seems to be a condensation of some principles given in these śloka
    2.1.24 Similarly estimate from AK. N/A
    2.1.25 If LL is in a malefic sign other than its exaltation sign or debilitated or having malefic association reduction in longevity occurs. 43.60 – 43.64 These ślokas and possibly 43.75 – 43.78 seem to be a condensed by Jaimini here. See text for details.
    2.1.26 If vice-versa it causes longevity increase. See 43.60 – 43.64
    2.1.27 Jupiter in previous places causes increase in life span. See 43.60 – 43.64
    2.1.28 Full Mo or Ve in these places cause rāśi vrddhi or increase of life by up to 9 years. See 43.60 – 43.64
    2.1.29 Sa in previous places causes reduction by 9 years. See 43.60 – 43.64
    2.1.30 Death occurs in the particular khanḍa as per sthira daśā. 46.168 -46.169 Parāśara defines sthira daśā in his daśā chapter
    2.1.31 Death will occur in the daśā of the 2nd house. 44.1 – 44.5 Parāśara defines 2nd as well as 7th as mārakas and that planets here can kill in their periods along with other details.
    2.1.32 The sign (in the longevity compartment) which is hemmed in between malefics being in 2/12 from it, or which has malefics in trines, or malefics in 8/12 from it can inflict death. N/A This seems a condensation of some of Parāśara’s teachings who shares many other details not covered here ( See māraka chapter), while Jaimini gives some techniques not seen in BPHS.
    2.1.33 Lord of a sign (in a longevity compartment) if aspected by a weak Mo and Ve can inflict death during daśā of its sign (sign itself works too). N/A
    2.1.34 During daśā of death inflicting sign, death comes in antardaśā of signs aspecting navāṁśa sign occupied by 8L from it. N/A
    2.1.35 Stronger of the lords of the 8th from lagna or 7th is Rudra. N/A
    2.1.36 Among the two lords malefic associations and aspects can make the weaker one Rudra. N/A
    2.1.37 Rudra if aspected by benefics shows death in the last śūla. N/A
    2.1.38 Benefics with Rudra extend life up to the last of the three śūla daśā. N/A
    2.1.39 Malefics other than the Su conjoining Rudra indicate otherwise. N/A
    2.1.40 Sa, Ma, Mo aspecting Rudra without any beneficial conjunctions or malefics only with Rudra or benefics aspecting Rudra show death in the next (2nd) śūla daśā. N/A
    2.1.41 The “śūla” is to be examined in the śūla daśā and antardaśā. See 2.3 for śūla daśā. 46.181 -46.182 BPHS defines śūla daśā here though it is noted that Jaimini uses 9 years, though Parāśara uses same years as sthira daśā.
    2.1.42 The rāśi with Rudra in it can be death inflicting. 5.20 Same, though defined in viśeṣa lagna chapter.
    2.1.43 The rāśi with Rudra in the 12th will surely be death inflicting. N/A
    2.1.44 Rudra in the 8th indicates death in antardaśā of Rudra rāśi. N/A
    2.1.45 Depending on longevity (short, mid, long) death will come in the daśā of 1st, 2nd, 3rd śūla. N/A
    2.1.46 Lord of the 8th from the AK is called Maheśwara. ( this is a special Rudra that can emancipate the soul) N/A
    2.1.47 If the 8L form AK is exalted or in OH, 8L/12L from it, whichever is stronger, becomes Maheśwara. N/A
    2.1.48 If Ra or Ke become Maheśwara or if Ra/ Ke is in 1/8 from AL, the 6th planet or 6L respectively becomes Maheśwara. Many notes by Rath here. N/A
    2.1.49 From stronger of Lagna/7th the stronger of the lords of 6,8,12, if placed in odd visible sign in Brahmā (the Creator). Lots of notes by Rath here. 46.171– 46.173 Parāśara has defined the same Brahmā graha daśā, also akin to sthira daśā.
    2.1.50 If Sa, Ra or Ke become Brahmā then the 6th planet (in order of weekdays) becomes Brahmā. See 46.171 – 46.173
    2.1.51 If more than one planet qualifies for Brahmā, the one with higher longitude (in sign) becomes Brahma. See 46.171 – 46.173
    2.1.52 The longitude of Ra is reckoned form the end of the sign. N/A
    2.1.53 If lord of the 8th from AK is in 8th itself, it qualifies as Brahmā. See 46.171 – 46.173
    2.1.54 If 2 or more planets claim to be Brahmā the strongest should be taken. See 46.171 – 46.173
    2.1.55 Longevity extends from Brahmā to Maheśwara. N/A
    2.1.56 During Brahmā daśā of the sign, having Maheśwara, the antardaśā will be of a sign in trines to the sign occupied by the 8L from Maheśwara. N/A
    2.1.57 The strongest of the lords of 3, 6, 8, 12 houses from AK or lagna, becomes the māraka. N/A
    2.1.58 Generally 6L is death inflictor. N/A
    2.1.59 The daśā of the sign occupied or aspected or in trines for the death inflictor furnishes the last period of life. N/A
    2.1.60 The antardaśā could be of the signs in the 6, 7, 8 or 12th from the death inflictor sign. N/A

    JAIMINI 2.2

    This is a short chapter where Jaimini focus on death of people connected to the native along with the nature of the event. Once again we see Jaimini taking BPHS as a basis, though giving us some new calculations to work with not found in that text and showing Jaimini’s hallmark concern of death calculations which comprise a large part of his text.

    2.2.1 Stronger between Su and Ve is father kāraka.  Note: These kārakas are for death calculations, 32.18 -32.21 Note: Standard texts say Su-Ve or Sa/Mo for father/mother in day/night birth for naisargika indications.
    2.2.2 Stronger between Mo and Ma shows mother. See 32.18 – 32.21
    2.2.3 Weaker among the two could be significator if there are malefic influences ( more likely to induce death) N/A
    2.2.4 Stronger significator (of father or mother) if aspected by benefics would show demise of parent in śūla daśā. ( give it strength to kill) N/A
    2.2.5 Stronger of 8L (from significators or their 7th) could also kill parents. Rules in 2.1.35 – 2.1.45 also applicable. N/A
    2.2.6 Predict demise per śūla daśā of the Rudra planet. 5.20 Similar, though Parāśara adds this onto varṇada calculations while talking of death of various people connected to native.
    2.2.7 Longevity prediction requires intelligent application of the principles. N/A Note: The reference is to niryāṇa śūla daśā and other āyur daśā to be picked for correct application.
    2.2.8 If Su and Me conjoin the sign dispositing them or 12, 3, 5 from them can kill father. Rath gives more notes. N/A Note : Su should be fixed significator, signs aspected by Me-Su could be fatal, Ju conjoining loses sting, Ra makes death sure.
    2.2.9 If only malefics other than Sun aspect significator of father/mother parents passes in 12 years. N/A
    2.2.10 Spouse dies in śūla of Jupiter. N/A
    2.2.11 Demise of other relatives to be predicted from their śūla daśā. See 1.1.20 to 1.1.24 for kārakas. N/A
    2.2.12 Malefics conjoining/aspecting 3rd from the significator shows a painful death. N/A While both texts mention auspicious/inauspicious places of death (see 44.32-33 below) BPHS does not mention painful death.
    2.2.13 Benefics there shows it is painless. See above note.
    2.2.14 Mixed planets give mixed results. See above note.
    2.2.15 Su influencing 3rd, give death due to government. 44.25 – 44.31 While Jaimini is defining from kāraka here, BPHS is defining from ascendant with same results.
    2.2.16 Mo there gives chest complaints as cause. See 44.25 – 44.31
    2.2.17 Ma there gives death from weapons, fire, wounds, burns, etc. See 44.25 – 44.31


    Sa there shows vāta related diseases giving death. Note: poisoning also shown. See 44.25 – 44.31. BPHS does not mention Sa alone or vāta issues.
    2.2.19 Sa and mandi show snakebite, poison, water, and bondage as cause of death. See 44.25 – 44.31 Defines Sa+ Ra for death through poison, water or fire, fall from heights, or confinement.
    2.2.20 Ke on 3rd shows small pox and contagious disease or typhoid and water borne disease. N/A Ke not mentioned in translation, though perhaps there is an issue with translation as above associations mention water.
    2.2.21 Mo and mandi on 3rd shows choking or food poisoning (throat). See 44.25 – 44.31 Says insects or leprosy for this combination.
    2.2.22 Ju on 3rd shows vomiting and inability to eat as cause. See 44.25 – 44.31 Says swelling or tumors.
    2.2.23 Ve on 3rd shows urinary issues, kidney damage, giving death. See 44.25 – 44.31 Same.
    2.2.24 Many planets give mixed results. See 44.25 – 44.31 Same.
    N/A See 44.25 – 44.31 Adds Me bringing death followed by fever.
    2.2.25 If Mo conjoins/aspects above planets in 3rd cause indicated is sure to materialize. N/A
    2.2.26 Benefics or beneficial sign in 3rd house shows nice place of death. 44.32 Same.
    2.2.27 Malefics or malefic sign in 3rd shows bad place of death. See 44.32  Adds mixed occupation shows mixed results.
    2.2.28 Ju or Ve in 3rd show awareness of period of death. 44.33 Same
    2.2.29 Other planets indicate otherwise. See 44.33
    N/A 44.34 Parāśara adds if 3rd is movable, fixed or dual, death will be in foreign place, own house, or on the way.
    N/A 44. 35 – 44.36 Parāśara notes planets 8th from lagna in same way with Su as death through fire, Mo water, Ma weapons, Me fever, Ju diseases, Ve hunger, and Sa thirst.
    N/A 44.37 If 8th under benefic influence with 9l conjunct benefic native dies in a shrine. Malefics are otherwise.
    N/A 44.38 – 44.46 Adds more details about the corpse and soul before and after death to close out his māraka chapter.
    2.2.30 If Sa and Ra or Ke conjoin hemispheres from 1-12 house, native will not perform last rite of concerned parent. N/A Mentions conditions for Ra/Ke becoming māraka in 44.22 – 44.24 though does not discuss last rites of parents.
    2.2.31 If previous combo is in any of first 6 houses form lagna, last rites of mother will not be performed. N/A
    2.2.32 If combination in 2.2.30 is in houses 7-12, last rites of father will not be performed. N/A

    JAMINI 2.3

    Here Jaimini gives us an easy to follow rules for strengths of signs, which are found littered throughout BPHS. He also goes into various daśā calculations including āyur daśās such as navāṁśa, śūla, sthira, and Brahma daśā as well as the phalita daśā called cara daśā. More daśā are given in section 2.4 as well.

    2.3.1 If lagna is odd sign navāṁśa daśā starts from it. Note: this is an āyur daśā, not the D9. N/A
    2.3.2 When the lagna is an even sign the navāmśa daśā starts from the ādarsa sign (facial or sammukha / sign opposite it in south Indian chart). N/A
    2.3.3 Sthira daśā have periods of 7,8,9 years for movable, fixed, dual signs. 46.168 – 46.169 Same.
    2.3.4 Sthira daśā begin from sign occupied by Brahmā See 46.168-169. Daśā of 12 signs start from Brahmā graha. Raśī are counted onwards from odd, reverse order from even signs.
    N/A 46. 170 – 46.173 Gives some calculations on finding Brahmā graha, strength calculations buried in here.
    2.3.5 The sources of strength are being enunciated. NOTE: These should be taken in order and not combined into a  mathematical figure as some do. N/A These are scattered throughout Parāśara and condensed/elaborated upon here thanks to Jaimini.
    2.3.6 First source is presence of AK in the sign. 32.9 – 32.12 The importance of AK is discussed and if it is weak all other carakārakas are weak speaking to its importance.
    2.3.7 If no AK, conjunction of larger # of planets is stronger. 46.158 – 46.166 Also gives order of strengths of signs in cara daśā calculations of which lager # of planets stronger. Also seems referenced to argali principle.
    2.3.8 If equal planets, status of planets (exalted, etc.) shows stronger sign. See 46.158 – 46.166. This is second level of strength for signs. Parāśara gives basic dignity calculations in planets chapter.
    2.3.9 If both are equal, then natural order of strength ( dual strongest, then fixed, movable). Note some say it is planets though it is out of context. See 46.158 – 46.166. Parāśara gives dual, fixed, movable as well.
    2.3.10 If both signs have no planets, then lord who is AK is the one. N/A N/A, though Parāśara states that next exaltation planet lord taken and AK is first source of strength.
    2.3.11 If none, then sign whose lord has higher degrees is taken. 46.171 – 173 For Brahmā graha after giving methods of finding, one of greater longitude given as option for delineation.
    2.3.12 If two signs have same lord or same longitude, then odd sign strong if lord is in even, and even stronger if lord is in an odd sign. 46.171-173 Possibly referenced here as well where Brahmā graha sign associated with odd lord taken.
    2.3.13 This ends the first source of strength. N/A
    2.3.14 2nd source of strength of signs is the aspect or conjunction of its lord, AK, Ju, or Me. NOTE: sources of strength are exclusive of each other. N/A This may reference back to importance of AK given above.
    2.3.15 3rd source of strength comes from placement of lord of a sign. N/A
    2.3.16 If lord is in a quadrant, paṇaphara, or āpoklima sign from the AK strength declines proportionately. 46.175- 46.176 The principle of lord strength in quadrant, paṇaphara, āpoklima is seen in lagna kendrādi graha /rāśi daśā, AK kendrādi graha, etc.
    2.3.17 4th source of strength of sign is the conjunction/aspect of malefics (or malefic ownership). * for āyur daśā as malefics inflict death. 46.123 – 46.128 In kālacakra daśā, BPHS outlines Su, Ma, Sa, Ra as anticipating death.
    2.3.18 Stronger between lagna and 7th is used for śūla daśā. 46.181 – 46.182 BPHS states 8th from lagna or the 7th ( 2nd) starts daśa, whichever one is stronger.
    2.3.19 Stronger between 9th and 3rd starts śūla daśā for father. N/A
    2.3.20 Stronger between 4th and 10 starts śūla daśā for mother. N/A
    2.3.21 Stronger between 3rd and 9th starts śūla daśā for younger brothers. N/A
    2.3.22 Stronger between 5th and 11th starts śūla daśā for father. N/A
    2.3.23 Stronger between 11th and 5th starts śūla daśā for elder brothers and sisters. N/A
    2.3.24 For paternal relatives use same as for father (2.3.19). N/A
    2.3.25 For maternal relatives use mother ( 2.3.20) N/A
    2.3.26 Brahmā daśā starts from sign occupied by Brahmā and goes zodiacal if starting sign is odd. Period of daśā is calculated from the daśā sign to the sign occupied by the lord of the 6th form it. 46. 168 – 46.169 Brahma daśā moves forward for odd signs, reverse for even signs. BPHS starts this from 6, 8,or 12 from stronger of 1/7 and in an odd sign located 6 from 1/7. Other options also given for determining Brahma graha here as well.
    2.3.27 If Brahma is in an even sign, the daśā starts from the 7th house from Brahma and goes in reverse direction. Above reference mentions odd sign, may be a misinterpretation of the śloka as Sharma and Santanam have wildly different interpretations of these stanzas.
    2.3.28 Note: Rath skips this stanza number in his translation.
    2.3.29 Progress of the cara daśā ( starting from 1/7) depend on sign in 9th house being vimṣapada or samapada. 46.167 Daśā starts based on 9th being even/odd. Śloka 155-156 also sets up the basic progression of the daśā.
    2.3.30 Ke is a benefic N/A

    JAIMINI 2.4

    Picking up from the previous quarter, Jaimini’s main focus here is more daśā explanations including nārāyaṇa (pādakrāma), AK kendrādi, maṇḍūka, niryāṇa śūla, yogardha, dṛg, trikoṇa, and lagnādi raśī (sudaśa) daśā. Some of these have many variations and the applicability has not been given. Jaimini suggests to see other texts, such as BPHS, for more details on other daśā such as nakṣatra based systems which are not the focus of Jaimini but extensively covered in BPHS.

    2.4.1 In cara and navāṁśa daśā, 2nd source of strength is used. 46.158 – 166 BPHS lays out the rules for deciding sign strength, though they omit 1st rule of AK. Unclear what the correlation is between Jaimini’s rules and if it is 2nd source of strength, or starting form 2nd in 1st source of strength.
    2.4.2 The daśā sign itself is the dwāra ( door) 51.7 -51.12 Dwāra also known as paka.
    2.4.3 Count as many signs from the dwāra as it has gained from the ascendant. The sign arrived at is the bhāya ( exterior) 51.7-51.12 Bhāya also known as bhoga.
    2.4.4 If malefics are both in the dwāra and bhāya signs, bondage and disease are indicated. 51.7 – 51.12 Malefics cause mental agony and pain in the body.
    2.4.5 If these malefics are in own sign or with Ju, evil will not happen. (see 1.3.43) 51.7 -51.12 There will be enjoyment if there are benefics here.
    2.4.6 If mixed planets influence dwāra and bhāya, results are modified. N/A This principle can be had by extension of above.
    2.4.7 The stronger between the lagna and 7th shall initiate the nārāyaṇa daśā ( pādakrāma daśā). NOTE: this daśā is hallmark of Jaimini and best for all predictive purposes. 51.6 Some correlation with antardaśā or signs starts form sign itself or 7th form it, whichever is stronger.
    2.4.8 If the lagna is a movable sign, order of daśā is regular. 51.7 – 51.12 If moveable, order is forward or reverse.
    2.4.9 If lagna is fixed sign succeeding daśā will be sign of 6th house. 51.7 – 51.12 If fixed, starts with self and every 6th sign from there.
    2.4.10 If lagna is dual, succeeding daśā are of the 5th and 9th houses followed by 10th house, its trines, and so on. 51.7 – 51.12 If dual it will start from first and rāśi Kendra to it, then 5th and kendra, 9th and kendra, etc.
    2.4.11 Signs in kendra, paṇaphara, and āpoklima from the AK give daśā of 9 years each ( AK kendrādi daśā – graha, lagna kendrādi rāśi, & lagna kendrādi graha daśā implied here) 48.175 – 48.176 Parāśara outlines some of this under Kendrādi daśā, though implicates it in others such as from AK. Years based on cara daśā, which are variable in BPHS.
    2.4.12 The first daśa (in kendrādi daśā) are of the quadrants. The strongest quadrant which is also an odd sign will start the daśā. 48.175 – 48.176 Odd/Even decides how the house order goes.
    2.4.13 Antardaśā start from sign with lord of daśā rāśi or 7th sign from it. 48.175 – 48.176 Parāśara has similar opinion and is applicable to all phalita daśā and a few āyur daśā.
    2.4.14 Results depend on strength of the lord of daśā rāśi. 52.1-3 Results are interpreted based on strength of lord, if with full strength gives full results and so on.
    N/A 48.178 BPHS goes on to kāraka daśā based on carakārakas before moving on to maṇḍūka as seen in Jaimini.
    2.4.15 The maṇḍūka (frog) daśā starts from the lagna or “ādarsa” sign, whichever is odd and succeeding daśa will be of every 3rd sign. Rath gives lots of notes here. 48.179 – 48.180 Start from 1/7. Counting based on starting sign being odd, it moves forward with daśā of 3 moveable, fixed, dual signs while if even moves in reverse with every 3rd sign being taken. Years are based on sthira system.
    2.4.16 Determine stronger between lagna and 7th. Nirāyana śūla daśā starts 8th from it. 48.181-48.182 This system is just called śūla in BPHS, starting form stronger of 2nd or 8th.
    2.4.17 The nirāyana śūla daśā start from an odd sign and progress regularly and zodiacally. 48.181 – 48.182 Mentions zodiacal/reverse progress for odd/even sign starting the daśā and adds that the periods of the signs are the same as the sthira daśā ( 7,8,9 years for moveable, fixed, dual)
    2.4.18 The daśā based on constellation can be studied from standard texts. 48 See BPHS chapter on daśā for numerous nakṣatra based daśā systems.
    The yogardha given in Jaimini is given before Kendrādi daśā in BPHS. BPHS has trikoṇa dasha before going on to dṛg daśā, both are below.
    2.4.19 Periods of the signs in the yogardha daśā is the average of the periods of the signs in cara and sthira daśā. 48.174 BPHS says yogardha is average of periods obtained from cara and sthira for the sign. The daśā starts form stronger of 1/7 and their ādarsa sign and will be zodiacal/reverse depending on whether the lagna is odd/even.
    2.4.20 Yogardha daśā start from stronger of lagna or ādarsa sign. It is regular and zodiacal if the lagna is odd, reverse if even. 48.174 BPHS has same view. Determine stronger of 1/7. Now compare this to its ādarsa sign. Stronger of two shall start the daśā. However in maṇḍūka and navāṁśa daśā the odd sign between lagna/ādarsa starts the daśā.
    2.4.21 Dṛg daśā starts from the 9th house and the signs aspecting the 9th, 10th, 11th in order give the daśā. Signs succeeding these will depend on the 9th, 10th, 11th signs being vimṣapada or samapada. 48.185 – 48.187 BPHS also says the 1st,5th,9th daśā will be of the 9th,10th,11th houses. The daśā starts form the 9th house and is succeeded by the three signs aspecting it. This is followed by the 10th house and the 3 signs aspecting it, then by 11th house and 3 signs aspecting it. ( the question is which of 3 signs aspecting it will succeed is clarified in next stanza though Jaimini mentions pāda implying zodiacal/reverse for vimsa/samapada)
    2.4.22 Reckoning of succeeding dṛg daśā signs is reverse for Leo and Aq while zodiacal for Ta and Sco N/A
    2.4.23 Reckoning of succeeding dṛg daśā signs is same for dual signs ( as it is for moveable signs) 48.185 – 48.187 Parāśara’s opinion on reckoning of successors in dṛg daśā is quite different. For moveable signs in 9/10/11 the successors are always reckoned in reverse, for fixed signs successors are reckoned zodiacally and for dual signs it in zodiacal for odd signs & reverse for even signs. The resolution of this is beyond the scope of this basic comparison.
    2.4.24 The trikoṇa daśā starts from stronger among 1,5,9. (this daśā are also phalita daśā but different than Nārāyaṇa daśā given in 2.4.10. The later starting point is 1/7 house) 48.183 – 48.184 BPHS says trikoṇa daśā begin from strongest of 1,5,9 and periods are same as cara daśā. After the trines the daśā go to the 2nd house from starting sign/its trines and so on. Succeeding signs are reckoned zodiacally or reverse depending on whether the lagna is odd or even. ( compare this to Narayan under 2.4.10 that after covering trines progresses to 10th houses instead of 2nd)
    2.4.25 The results should be studied form the dwāra and bhāya rāśi. ( refer to 2.4.2 & 2.4.3) N/A
    2.4.26 Results (of trikoṇa and other phalita daśā) are seen from 1,9,3, & 7 houses from the daśā sign. N/A
    2.4.27 The lagnādi raśī daśā ( also raśī daśā) is explained. The birth constellation should be divided into 12 parts, and the number of parts (including fractions) gained by the Mo is converted into signs ( degrees & minutes) and added to longitude of lagna to obtain śrī lagna. 48.188 – 48.190 BPHS has same view as Jaimini and adds that if śrī lagna is in odd sign (BPHS calls these lagnādi rāśi dasha, not śrī which is a Rath thing), the daśā are regular and zodiacal whereas if an even sign the daśā are reverse. He says for determining balance of daśā at birth, the longitude of śrī lagna (forget signs) should be divided by 30 & multiplied by # of years of first daśā. This method is exclusive for śrī lagna and should not be extended to narāyana or other daśā. There are some varying opinions in all this.
    2.4.28 If the lord of śrī lagna is exalted or debilitated, the native is a śrīmantāh (elite/wealthy) NOTE:4.28 – 30 also apply to lord of daśā raśī in lagnādi raśī daśā as well as to planets in śrī lagna/ daśā sign or aspecting. Natural benefics add to the status while natural malefics reduce the same. N/A
    2.4.29 If lord of śrī lagna (or daśā raśī) is in OH/friendly sign the natives wealth and fortune are correspondingly reduced NOTE: śrī lagna or daśā raśī in OH shows upper class while friendly is middle class. N/A
    2.4.30  If lord of śrī lagna (or daśā raśī) is in inimical sign, the native is poor. Rath gives many notes here. N/A
    2.4.31 If śrī lagna is in odd sign, the lagnādi raśī daśā starting from śrī lagna will be regular and zodiacal. If lord of daśā sign is in an odd sign, the sub periods will be regular and zodiacal ( commencing from the lord or its 7th) 48.188 – 48.189 BPHS points out “swā” in present context refers to śrī lagna itself, whereas “swām” refers to the lords of śrī lagna and the succeeding daśā raśī placement in odd signs for antardaśā to be regular.
    2.4.32 In even signs (śrī lagna or lord of daśā raśī) the direction is reversed. 48.188 – 48.189 Extension of above
    2.4.33 If Saturn is in śrī lagna or daśā raśī the progress of the raśī daśā/antardaśā will be zodiacal (even if signs are even). NOTE: if Ke in śrī lagna or daśā raśī progress of raśī daśā/antardaśā will be reversed. N/A
    2.4.34 The antardaśā and bhukti start from the lord of the daśā sign or its 7th house and are as per preceding stanzas. ( this is used in all phalita daśā) 51.6 This is a common feature in many daśā.
    2.4.35 If the daśā raśī is a beneficial sign or with benefics/exalted planet good fortune can be predicted. 49.5 – 49.6 BPHS has whole chapter on results which Jaimini does not go into much.
    2.4.36 If the indications are contrary to this fortune is lost. 49.5 – 49.6 See above.
    2.4.37 The rules that have not been explicitly stated may be studied form standard texts. N/A To extant feasible this has been done under relevant stanzas by adding quotes form BPHS. BPHS also includes pańcswāra, yoginī, sāndhya and other daśā at the end of his daśa chapter.
  • 04 Parashara and Jaimini 3

    JAIMINI 3.1

    This section introduces uses of Raja Yoga and while starts off identical to BPHS, quickly condenses and gives some variations on themes outlined in BPHS which has a vast amount of variations on all these placements throughout the chapters on raj, royal association, and wealth yogas.

    SUTRA Meaning ŚLOKA Meaning
    3.1.1 Rājayoga from conjunction of AK and PiK or lords of 1 and 5. 39.3 – 39.5 Same. Kārakāṁśa lagna mentioned which involves AK in D9 mentioned in next stanza by Jaimini.
    3.1.2 If these planets are nīca/uccha or conjoining/aspecting the D9 lagna or in aspect to each other and/or only aspected by benefics mahārāj yoga is formed. 39.6 – 39.7 Same.
    3.1.3 If one of these yogas is in 1/7 the fortune will come late in life. 39.8 BPHS mentions 9L and 7th house placements related to this though seems to differ from Jaimini.
    3.1.4 If one of these yogas in in 1/7 the fortune is away from birth place (Rath Note: this happens in 7,9,12 houses not 1st necessarily). 39.8 See above
    N/A 39.9 Parāśara adds a śloka here, mentions benefics in 2,4,5 and malefics in 3,6 helping the rāj yoga reminding us to apply argalā to the situation.
    3.1.5 If Mo and Ve conjoin/aspect the places mentioned conveyances are had. 39.10 Slight variation here, if Ve is in kārakāṁśa, 5th, lagna, AL with influence of Jupiter or Moon native will be related to royal circles.
    While the intro sets up some connection between the texts, we see a big divergence here in application as BPHS goes into specifics Jaimini does not.
    3.1.6 If the rājayoga is conjoined Sa or Ke, elephants and horse promised. (only use this for rājyogas) N/A
    3.1.7 If Ve, Ma, Ke join/aspect the AK or lagna, 2nd or 4th rājyoga occurs. Health, wealth happiness are promised. 39.17 Rath notes this śloka from Parāśara connected here, which deviates a bit saying lagna,2,4 has benefics or 3,6 malefics makes one a king.
    3.1.8 If lords of the ascendant, 7th, and 9th houses conjoin or mutually aspect rājyoga occurs. ( self, partner, fortune) 39.8 This seems another slight variation as BPHS says 9L, AK, in lagna,5th,7th from lagna or kārakāṁśa in conjunction or aspected by benefic give rājyoga.  39.33 – 39.44 has similar connections.
    3.1.9 If these rājyogas in previous stanzas occur in 1/7 they happen late in life. N/A
    3.1.10 If they occur in 2/4 they happen early in life. N/A
    3.1.11 If 2/12 have equal # of benefics rājyoga occurs.(Rath note malefics give imprisonment) N/A
    3.1.12 Ju and Mo in 1 & 9 or 1 & 7 aspected by benefics produces an institutional head or overlord of villages. 39.11 We see some variation of this with Ve in lagna, kārakāṁśa, AL, or 5th there from with Ju + Mo influence gives association with royal circles.
    3.1.13 Me and Ju conjoining/aspecting the 2nd house produces the head of a princely state. 39.18 Variation here with Ju, Me, Ve, or Mo exalted in 2nd native will be endowed with wealth.
    3.1.14 Lord of the 2nd house nīca/uccha in 1/7 native is wealthy. N/A Seems to be a combination of above śloka along with others that state nīca planets can give wealth.
    3.1.15 If Mo and Ve join/aspect 2 or 8, native is wealthy. N/A See 39.18 for possible variation.
    3.1.16 If the 2nd house/lord occupies beneficial vargas the native is wealthy. N/A See 39.18 for possible variation.
    3.1.17 If Mo is in 4th or 11th form Jupiter, native is wealthy. N/A Possible variation in 39.41 where Ve + Mo in 3-11 and mutually aspect each other here or elsewhere native is wealthy.
    3.1.18 If Mo is in 11, Ju in 10, and natural benefic or 9L in 9th raja yoga is formed. N/A This along with others all seem some variation of principles laid out in BPHS with slight modifications.
    3.1.19 Rājyoga also produced if Mo, Ju, and 9L are in 5 or 7. 39.8 This seems another slight variation as BPHS says 9L, AK, in lagna,5th, 7th from lagna or kārakāṁśa in conjunction or aspected by benefic give rājyoga.  39.33 – 39.44 has similar connections.
    3.1.20 Rājyogas explained in previous stanzas are to be studied form D9 and drekkāṇa charts as well. 39.25 Gives reference to studying aspects on D9 and drekkāṇa lagna.
    3.1.21 Ju and Mo conjoined in 1 or 7 and influenced by benefics gives a great personality. 40.10 Gives several similar dictums such as here where AK with benefic influence in 5, 7, 9,10 and native earns through royal patronage. Jaimini stresses 7th however.
    3.1.22 Mo in 7th aspected by benefics also gives a great person. N/A See 40.10
    3.1.23 Even if 1/7 is aspected by benefics w/o malefic aspects greatness/fame is promised. N/A See 40.10
    3.1.24 If benefics influence the 2nd, the native is in service of the government/large institutions. 39.18 Variation here with Ju, Me, Ve, or Mo exalted in 2nd native will be endowed with wealth.
    3.1.25 If quadrants & trines are devoid of benefic influence service should be predicated. 40.10 Jaimini states the opposite of what BPHS is teaching in numerous places which emphasizes quadrant/trinal lords giving raj yoga, such as here where AK with benefics in 5,7,10,9 gives royal patronage and hence opposite ( service) can be predicted otherwise.
    3.1.26 If AK or other benefics conjoin D9 lagna native comes from a noble family. (Rath note: at least 2 planets other than AK in D9 lagna make him chief of a number of villages) 39.13 – 39.14 BPHS only mentions same planets influencing lagna in ṣaḍvarga giving rājyoga and shows some variation on this theme.
    3.1.27 If the planet aspecting the lagna in raśī or D9 is in exalted navāṁśa, then native also from noble family. N/A See 39.13 – 39.14
    3.1.28 Even if previous planets are malefics native still belongs to a noble family. N/A See 39.13 – 39.14
    3.1.29 If the 9th from D5 lagna or AL has beneficial conjunctions native achieves status equal to a king. N/A Jaimini gives a hint to see D5, which BPHS does not define, though BPHS uses GL, BL, HL in reference to rājyogas that Jaimini omits.
    3.1.30 From AK, 1st and 5th describe symbols used by the king government.  ( AK= ruler and sign occupied by it inD1/5 describes symbols of head of state. Ke is flags and should be examined also) N/A More emphasis given to 5th once again, hinting at importance of GL as well for looking at power (since it is based on 5).

    JAIMINI 3.2

    In this section we see even more death calculations from Jaimini. There seem to be some tenuous relationships to BPHS and the later part of the longevity/māraka chapters until Jaimini goes off into his own new methods entirely.

    SUTRA Meaning ŚLOKA Meaning
    3.2.1 Death is known from 1/8 houses from the concerned ascendant/house and karaka. This gives finer details to using stanza 2.3.18 to 2.3.25. * some authors treat this as separate longevity calculation. 43.33 – 43.40 These principles were previously touched on where longevity was considered form LL, 8l, Mo, Sa,& HL. Jaimini appears to be giving more details here. BPHS Chapter 19 on the effects of 8th house also gives some hints as well involving 8l, LL, and 8th house.
    3.2.2 Death inflicting houses should be determined from the 1/7 form the bhāva or kāraka. 44.2 Possibly reference to the māraka planets which BPHS defines as 2nd and 7th lord.
    3.2.3 If Ju is in a quadrant, aspected by Sa or Ma or if Sa is in the bhoga raśī of Ju, kakṣyā hrāsa or longevity reduction takes place. 43.48  Parāśara comments that if Jupiter is in 1-7 with benefics increases longevity, which is the complementary of Jaimini here. This is after defining Sa being yogakāraka as lowering longevity. Likewise 43.61 says Ju/Ve aspecting LL in angles gives long life.
    3.2.4 The Mo in 8th or 12 causes reduction in longevity. 19.8 – 19.13 Mentions that 8l in 8th and Mo with malefic and no benefic aspect causes death within a month. Saturn is karaka for 8/12 showing Mo/Sa influence is not good for longevity.
    3.2.5 This will not occur if 8/12 is Cancer. 43.55 We are given a hint in BPHS where lagna is Cancer with Ju/Mo along with other placements giving limitless longevity, showing auspiciousness of Cancer. This is reiterated in the yoga for living till the end of a yuga (43.57) with Cancer as lagna.
    3.2.6 This reduction will not occur if 8th has exalted Mo. 43.64 A variation of this given that 8l or Sa in conjunction with exalted planet will give long live.
    3.2.7 If Sa occupies 8th from lagna/karaka, death is in the first part of the longevity compartment (kakṣyā). 44.9 We see a tenuous link where Sa associating with māraka becomes māraka himself, before Parāśara details longevity compartments
    3.2.8 If Ra occupies the 8th death is in the 2nd part of the kakṣyā. 9 (12-24 years for short, 48-60 middle, and 84-96 for long life). 44.22 – 22.24 After longevity compartments defined, we see Ra/Ke become māraka if in 1,7,8,12 or in 1/7 form māraka planet.
    3.2.9 If Ke occupies 8th from lagna or karaka, death is in the 3rd part of kakṣyā. ( Rath Note: this follows viṁśottarī Yogi/Avayogi planets so Ma-Sa-Ve, Su-Ra-Me, and Mo-Ju-Ke form a group) 44.22 – 22.24 See above.
    3.2.10 The death inflicting śūla daśā will be in trines to the fixed karaka or the Rudra ( 8L) 5.10 – 5.23 Mentions Rudra planet cause death affliction in conjunction with trines from varṇada lagna.
    3.2.11 If both Lagna and Moon are in moveable signs, short life is given. (Note: this is 3rd method of longevity estimation after 2 in Chapter 2.1. Some put this with 2.1.5 of method 1 creating confusion between Jaimini/BPHS). Both factors here concern the head while previous concern 1/8 houses. N/A As Rath points out, this has seeming connections to previous results where Jaimini/BPHS coincide but really appears to be a unique method of calculation by Jaimini.
    3.2.12 If both lagna/moon in fixed signs middle life is given. (this means 8th houses will be in dual signs) N/A
    3.2.13 If both lagna/Mo are in dual signs long life is given ( both 8th houses in movable signs then) N/A
    3.2.14 Hence by principle of exclusion moveable & fixed (long life), fixed and dual ( short life), and dual & moveable ( middle life) are understood. This means if one planet in each of these signs, the sign not included gives the longevity. N/A
    3.2.15 Stanzas 3.2.11 to 3.2.14 are applicable to the lagna and Moon signs. N/A
    3.2.16 If Sa is in these places kakṣyā hrāsa occurs. ( only applicable if Sa is not lord of lagna/Mo) N/A
    3.2.17 If Sa is in 12, 4, or 6 from lagna/Mo then also kakṣyā hrāsa occurs. N/A
    3.2.18 The longevity compartment reduction occurs form mid-life ( 36-72) to short life ( 0-36) or from long life ( 72-108) to mid-life (36-72). Short life can’t be reduced. N/A
    3.2.19 If benefics aspect/conjoin lagna/Mo afflicted by Sa, the longevity reduction does not occur. N/A
    3.2.20 Longevity is also from the signs occupied by lords of the lagna and 7th. ( this is second pair compared to lagna/moon) N/A Once again we see this is new longevity calculation added to above considerations
    3.2.21 If longevity shown by the two parts is variant the 8th will be determinant. ( see both pairs lagna/Mo and LL/7L, if they are at variance see 8th form these signs and strongest will show longevity) N/A
    3.2.22 Aspect of Sun adds strength to the signs. ( traditionally Ju and Sun give increase of life due to Shiva/strength associations) N/A
    3.2.23 If both dwāra ( door) and bhāya ( exterior) signs are afflicted by malefics ( or owned) evil occurs and reduction of longevity ( by about 9 years). ( from rāśi daśā dwāra/bhāya seen from lagna and uḍu daśā these are seen from moon) N/A
    3.2.24 If Mo is in dwāra or aspects it evils will not happen. ( unless Ma/Ve also afflict the sign) N/A
    3.2.25 If only benefics conjoin/aspect bhāya signs, death will not occur and recovery can be expected. N/A
    3.2.26 If malefics afflict daśā rāśi and 8th from it then death/disease can occur. N/A
    3.2.27 Death could also occur in signs in trines to the 8th house or 8L. N/A
    3.2.28 Death can also occur in the pādanadhaṁśa daśā of the 8th houses. This is a daśā of Navāṁśa examined exclusively. ( some authors interpret as navāṁśa daśa of 8th but this is already in 3.2.27) N/A
    3.2.29 If the 8th house is occupied by Sa, it causes death. N/A
    3.2.30 In case other planets are also there including benefics death should not be predicted. N/A
    3.2.31 If the 8th form lagna/Mo or the 2/8th from AK is afflicted by malefics or Rudra it can cause death. N/A
    3.2.32 The reduction in longevity ( in 3.2.23) can be up to 9 years. N/A
    3.2.33 If Su or Ve is in the 8th house it causes death. N/A
    3.2.34 Life starts from Brahma and ends at Maheśwara ( refers to Sthira and Brahmā daśā) N/A There seems to be a shift in Jaimini here to some more detailed/condensed principles as laid out in the daśā results chapters that follow longevity calculations in BPHS
    3.2.35 Death can also occur during the navāṁśa dasha of the 2nd house. N/A
    3.2.36 -3.2.37 If malefics afflict the 12th, 8th, 6th, or 3rd house from the 6th house or its lord, death occurs in their daśa. (note: The sixth house is used in Brahma dasha) N/A
    3.2.38 If Sa, Ra & Mo conjoin death occurs in the daśa of the sign housing them. N/A
    3.2.39 Death could also occur in trines to the sign housing them. N/A
    3.2.40 – 3.2.41 If all malefics afflict the 8th or 12th from the lord of the 6th house, these houses cause death. N/A
    3.2.42 Even then the sub period is that of the 6th house. N/A

    JAIMINI 3.3

    Once again we see Jaimini roughly staying in line with a few slokas from the maraka chapter placements before showing some more variation on death calculations, which BPHS does not delve as deeply into. This chapter seems to be one of the most important due to sheer length as well as the numerology of 3.3.

    3.3.1 Al and A7 are being considered. N/A
    3.3.2 If 8th or its lord from AL/D7 is in moveable sign, death will occur in a distant place (fixed near home, dual is middling, fiery sign in east – watery North, Airy west, earth =south). 44.34 BPHS only mentions these indications from the 3rd house, which is a variation even though Jaimini moves to the 3rd house next while BPHS moves to the 8th house placement and indication after this sloka showing some mixed overlap.
    3.3.3 If 3rd from Al/D7 is malefic a bad/unnatural death occurs. (Note: 2.2.12 is identical and advises 3rd from lagna, thus AL should be treated as lagna for most purposes). 2.2.13-14 can be extended here with benefic as normal and mixed as mixed results. 44.32 3rd house by a benefic indicates auspicious place of death, malefic opposite and mixed planets give mixed results.
    3.3.4 If malefics are in 3rd the “king” shall be cause of death. See 2.2.15 to 2.2.29 for more specifics on various planets. 44.25 45.31 Parāśara gives indications of planets 3rd from lagna and I is Sun that gives death by the king.
    3.3.5 8th house and 8th from it (3rd) from AL determine period place and nature of death. 44.35 – 44.36 8th house from lagna can show nature of death. BPHS gives correlations with planets which is absent here but expanded by Jaimini below.
    3.3.6 3rd from 8th (10th) also indicates death. Hence 1,8,10 and their lords determine longevity and death. This is 4th method of longevity estimation given: If these lords are all strong and unassociated with Sa native has long life. If two middle, and one short life. Very short if all three are weak. 44.59 – 44.64 In Rath notes he says Parāśara says if lords of 1,8,10 and Sa in quadrants, trines, or 11th the native is long lived, however gives no śloka. In longevity chapter of BPHS, there is an emphasis on 1,8th, Sa with exalted planets and benefics in quadrants to help longevity though no mention of 10th, 11th or emphasis on trines.
    3.3.7 3rd from the 3rd ( 5th) is also used to determine death. N/A Rath notes that Parāśara says lords of 1,5,8 placed in own navāṁśa, signs or friendly signs give long life, however gives no śloka and can’t be found in yoga chapters for longevity/death.
    3.3.8 If even one of the two signs in 3.3.2 is moveable death will occur in such places indicated by the sign. 44.34 This correlates with death occurring in foreign place.
    3.3.9 If both are fixed signs, death will occur indoors. 44.34 This can be an extension of this śloka where fixed signs indicate death at home.
    3.3.10 If 1st from AL/D7 is aspected by Ju or Ve is in 5th death occurs in a room. N/A BPHS only gives Jupiter/Ve influencing 3rd gives consciousness of death.
    3.3.11 – 3.3.12 Malefics influencing 1/5 shows death caused by rocks, stones or malevolent  means. N/A BPHS gives various causes of death, but none associated with rocks/stones.
    3.3.13 – 3.3.14 Ke influencing 1/5 shows death due to a mistake ( not homicide or suicide since it is intended and with thought). N/A Ke is mysteriously absent from Parāśara’s indications of planets/death.
    3.3.15 If Ke in previous place aspected by malefics then death will be violent. N/A
    3.3.16 Benefics associating with Ke prevents such mistakes or is averted (stanzas 3.3.10-16 also applicable in 3rd house). 44.22- 44.24 Ra/Ke does not cause pain or misery if in conjunction or aspected by a benefic planet.
    3.3.17 Malefics in 8th from AL or AK as the third house is a malefic sign shows bad unnatural death ( odd phrasing) N/A We are only given 44.32 above to see some association here.
    3.3.18 If malefics influenced aforementioned 3/8 snakebite, lance, etc. shall be cause. ( note: Ra must be involved for snake, Su-Ma shows weapons. Su is sword/light fire arms while Sa shows a bow/poison, etc.) 44.35 – 44.36 We see various planets giving results according to their indications with Su by fire, Ma by weapon, Sa by thirst.
    3.3.19 If Ra aspects sign referred to in 3.3.17 the evil will surely happen (Note: malefic in 3/8 not enough, 8th form AL and lagna & 3rd from AL are important too and Ra here surely indicates). 44.22 – 44.24 Ra/Ke can become māraka if with māraka planet or lord of difficult houses though not cause misery if with benefic.
    3.3.20 If Sa or Ra is in 3/8 the native is overpowered and killed mercilessly. N/A
    3.3.21 Sa and Ra in aforementioned houses (3/8) cause kidney complaints and urinary disorders (note: powerful Ju in lagna can avert bad death but Ju aspect on Ra/Sa in 38 might not work). 44.25 – 44.31 Sa/Ra in or aspecting 3rd can bring up poison, water, fire related deaths as well as fall from heights, in a ditch, confinement. Water issues may relate to urinary disorders though Parāśara distinctly mentions Venues for urinary diseases in this placement
    3.3.22 If Ma and Ke in 3/8 urinary complaints are sure to occur frequently (note: stanza assumes bad death averted by Ju). N/A This seems to be out of line with above.
    3.3.23 If Ma/Le is in 3/8 native is put to death by a spear/axe respectively (assumes Ju shield absent. Yoga can also be 7th house here which can activate). 44.35 – 44.36 Mars is associated with death by weapon though nothing indicated for Leo which could be an extension of the Sun.
    3.3.24 If Ra and Mo associate with 3.8 from AL or AK, bad death will occur during period of the sign. Ra indicates and Mo guarantees. N/A
    3.3.25 But if AL and other benefics are in 8th, death will not occur in period of sign (note carakārakas will not kill in śūla dasha but sthira karakas can cause death in their periods). 44.8 Some correlation can be seen here as the māraka does not cause death in antardaśā when he is related to a benefic.
    3.3.26 – 3.3.27 If Ma associates with 3/8 other than Taurus and Cancer, native suffers inflammatory diseases or eruptions (Moon signs keep heat of Ma under check). 44.25 – 44.31 Mars in 3rd gives death from ulcers, weapons, fire, etc.
    3.3.28 Nature of sign determines death when Mo is in 3/8 (Note: do not predict death if other factors prevent it). N/A* This seems to be a wholly new teaching starting here, while previous śloka had some basic linkage to BPHS and basic association of planets/signs they rule are used below, application is different.
    3.3.29 If Mo in 3/8 is in Libra, native is clubbed to death (principal here is to see 4th form Mo = Capricorn=sticks and clubs). N/A
    3.3.30 If Mo in 3/8 in Leo death due to poisonous snakes, reptiles, etc. (Scorpio). N/A
    3.3.31 If Mo in 3/8 is in D9 of Cancer or Scorpio death can be from insect bites, poisonous creatures, etc. (Note: Principles involved is that D9 sign itself occupied by Mo should also be considered in stanza 1.2.2 to 1.2.13). N/A
    3.3.32 If Mo in 3.8 aspects Scorpio or Leo death may be caused by mice and such creatures (Aries). Note: Mo usually indicates death from live creatures. N/A
    3.3.33 Death can be caused by D9 of the planet (in 3/8) or the 2nd or 6th from it. N/A
    3.3.34 In Aries D9, death is caused by natural elements (2 and 6 are Taurus and Virgo which are beneficial feminine signs giving natural disease). N/A
    3.3.35 In Taurus D9 the native is punished to death (2nd is Gemini but 6th is Libra giving clubs and sticks). N/A
    3.3.36 In Gemini D9 death caused by consuming poison (6th is Scorpio). N/A
    3.3.37 In Cancer D9 dangerous fever may give death ( 2nd is Leo showing fevers and 6th is Jupiterian sign Sag) N/A
    3.3.38 In Leo D9 death caused due to enmity (6th is Capricorn ruled by Saturn, 2nd is mercurial). N/A
    3.3.39 In Cancer D9 cholera, typhoid and waterborne diseases given ( Effects of D9 itself given per point in 3.3.33) N/A
    3.3.40 In Virgo D9, death due to enemies or his excess/weaknesses. ( 6th is Aquarius=Sa ruled enemies, and Ra giving death due to ṣādripu) N/A
    3.3.41 In Sag D9, arrows (or bullets) and sharp weapons give death. ( effects of sign in 2nd/Capricorn given as Sa rules the bow) N/A
    3.3.42 In Libra D9 leprosy given (6th from Libra is Pisces) N/A
    3.3.43 In Scorpio D9 death by lance/spear (6th is Aries ruled by Mars, firearms also possible). N/A
    3.3.44 In Sag D9 swords and other blades give death (2nd is Capricorn which also gives bows and arrows ruled by Sa) N/A
    3.3.45 In Capricorn D9 a violent and bad death is indicated (2nd is Aquarius and D9 is also Sa ruled. Great evil given here) N/A
    3.3.46 In Aquarius D9, hail, show fall, or lightening can kill (2nd is Pisces while 6th /Cancer rules rains. Floods and rapids can be included) N/A
    3.3.47 In Pisces D9 a peaceful/natural end is shown. (6th ruled by Sun which rarely malefic for matters concerning marriage, children, and longevity/health. Plus Pisces shows emancipation) N/A
    3.3.48 If Sun is in these places ( D9 of planet in 3/8 from AL/AK or in 2/6 navāṁśa sign from it) enemies, weapons, fire, etc. cause death. N/A
    3.3.49 If Mo is in these places, death is due to drowning in a well. ( Note well is fixed D9, moveable D9 is river, etc., dual D9 is large expanse of water) N/A
    3.3.50 If Ma is in these places cuts wounds, operation, boils, etc. can cause death (Taurus/Cancer/Pisces mitigate unless Mars further afflicted) N/A
    3.3.51 Me in these places show falling of a tree or from, landslide, natural disasters, etc. (moveable or w/Ma-Sa show landslides/earthquakes, if Mo show water related, fixed D9 trees shown, Sag D9 native may fall from a tree). N/A
    3.3. 52 Missing
    3.3.53 If Ve is in these places, spermatorrhea, urinary problems, private part diseases can cause ( Sa caused depletion/spermatorrhea, MA gives sores and boils ( gonorrhea, etc.), Ra gives dangerous things like AIDS, KE damages scrotum, Sun shows loss of fortune due to excesses). N/A
    3.3.54 Sa in these places and native consumes poison. N/A
    3.3.55 If Ra or Ke in these places poison, snakes, flying object, bondage, etc. can kill (Sa confirms poison, Su confirms snakebite, Ma shows accidents with moving objects). N/A
    3.3.56 Sa and Ra in the places kills by clubs/weapons after being overpowered by evil people. N/A
    3.3.57 If Ju and Ra are in these places death is due to black magic, witchcraft, etc. N/A
    3.3.58 If Ju and Sa are in these places both the attacker and native are killed. N/A
    3.3.59 Disease and other evil are seen from Lagna, triṁśāmśa and kauluka ( Note: Lagna refers to D3 Chart, also ascendant and 12 houses which rules various body parts 4.1 gives details. Kauluka is 1/6th division of sign, triṁśāmśa refers to 5 degrees division based on tatwas. Some say Jaimini’s triṁśāmśa is different form Parāśara but is not the case. See Rath’s commentary for more info). 44.38 – 44.39 Parāśara mentions using drekkāṇa for deciphering what happens after death, though does not distinguish the other charts here which Jaimini expounds upon.
    3.3.60 If (the afflicting planet) is in the first kauluka the disease/injury is in the forehead. N/A
    3.3.61 If in 2nd kauluka disease in the hair. N/A
    3.3.62 If in 3rd kauluka blood disorder ( can mean anything from blood pressure to Cancer. Also due to ears based on body parts. This stanza shows second principle of kauluka in that these will be lorded by planets in order of weekdays. This one is Mars – blood (but MOON is blood?) N/A
    3.3.63 If in 4th kauluka eye disease. N/A
    3.3.64 If in 5th kauluka danger from wild cats (3rd principle here as sign counted from Aries or Libra- here is Leo being 5th from Aries). N/A
    3.3.65 If planet in 6th kauluka tongue/mouth/throat diseases. N/A
    3.3.66 Results from previous six stanzas should be applied from Ra and Ke from the tongue onwards (in the reverse) N/A
    3.3.67 If planet or its kauluka associates with Sa and gulika entire food tract from mouth down susceptible to disease. N/A
    3.3.68 If planet or its kauluka associates with Mars consumption results. N/A
    3.3.69 If planet or its kauluka associates with Sun, constipation and blockage of excretory system ( kidney stones, etc.) results. N/A
    3.3.70 Death is seen from the Rudrāmsa (ekadasāmsa or D11) some interpret as 7th from Kārakāṁśa though he already has a place for this for spouse/females. See Rath’s commentary for more notes)
    3.3.71 As the (maṇḍūka) daśā progressed from 11 to 11th ( 9th house) and so on, evils befalling the native are seen from the inimical divisions ( hence maṇḍūka daśā is specifically meant for Rudrāmsa. Ripu can also refer to ṣādripu). 46.179– 46.180 Parāśara recommends fixed periods as per sthira daśa for maṇḍūka daśā as well.
    3.3.72 During daśā of lagna/AK ( or its ādarsa sign, whichever is odd) native is conquered by his enemies/weaknesses ( this is applied to 3/8 as well) 48.2 – 48.4 Good results from lagna like health/ fame during daśā but if negative will be opposite. Recognizes set 3-8 as difficult. See also 47.5-6, results based on benefic/malefic influence.
    3.3.73 Death could also occur during strongest of signs associating with malefics (this refers to 4th source of strength where sign with larger # malefics can kill – see stanza 2.3.17). 50.4 – 50.10 Results of cara daśā says various results of malefic sign/planet wherein malefics always create daśā with trouble.
    3.3.74 Death can also occur during daśā of sign ( in Rudrāmsa) ruled by Sa, Ma, Ra. 50.4 – 50.10 Similar to above. 50.23 – 50.25 also mentions antardaśā issues from Su, Ma, Sa, Ra. 46.123 – 128 if deha and jīva occupied by Su, Ma, Sa, Ra death can be anticipated – also gives planetary indications like below.
    3.3.75 Death can occur during daśā of sign (in Rudrāmsa) occupied by 8L or its bhāya rāśi (see Rath notes for more). 50.4 – 50.10 Similar to above.
    3.3.76 If Su influences death inflicting sign, a close friend/family member is cause of death. 47.12 – 47.15 If Sun malefically disposed can give weal, Sun indicates confrontation with brothers, friends, public wrath, mental agony of parents.
    3.3.77 If Mo influences death inflicting sign this death will surely happen due to them. N/A This is a general indication that comes time and again where Mo confirms something happening.
    3.3.78 If Ma influences death sign, a relative is cause. 47.33 Gives normal Mars indications though some indication of possible corruption in translation.
    3.3.79 If Me influences death sign, stomach disorders or disputes will cause death. 47.66 – 47.70 Acquires disease mentally upset, confrontative with relatives, co-born, etc.
    3.3.80 If Ju influences death sign quarrels and fire can cause death. 47.49 – 47.51 Change of house, mental tension, loss of wealth, etc.
    3.3.81 If Ve influences death sign, other sex (i.e. rape, love affair, etc.) can cause death. 47.83 – 47.84 ½ Viṁśottarī lord 6,8,12 can produce Venus related problems. Also if 2-7 become māraka can give physical danger.
    3.3.82 If Sa influences death sign consumption of poison can cause death (whether results of planet of sign shall predominate for previous stanzas given next). 47.57 – 47.60 Danger of poison and weapons, imprisonment, misfortune, etc.
    3.3.83 If planet is in OH then results given in 3.3.76-82 will predominate. 50.1 – 50.3 Lord of sign in full strength gives full results.
    3.3.84 If planet is in sign other than its own results of sign shall predominate. 50.4 – 50.10 Malefics results then malefic place sign covers this and next two stanzas on some level. BPHS moves from general planet results to houses to signs in Kalachakra to yogas in cara daśā etc. through chapters 48-51 and Jaimini seems to be mimicking it here in this chapter.
    3.3.85 If planet is uccha, sign will cause fall of native (exalted planets don’t kill). N/A
    3.3.86 If planet is nīca result of planet will occur. 50.40 – 41 Nīca planet in sign or trines with lord causes bad dasha.
    3.3.87 6th is house of punishment and 11th ( 6 from 6) is house of emancipation of the soul ( i.e.-death). Rath notes this may imply usage of ṣaṣṭāṁśa/ 1/6th division of sign and is referenced in following stanzas. N/A
    3.3.88 These houses ( 6/11) should be examined for adversities and ill health respectively. N/A
    3.3.89 Death of the native is seen in 2nd house (4th from 11th). N/A
    3.3.90 3rd house is death inflictor for parents. N/A
    3.3.91 4th house (third from 2nd) is death inflictor for relatives and co-born. N/A
    3.3.92 5th house (4 from 2nd) is death inflictor for spouse (note: 4th in ṣaṣṭāṁśa refers to spouse instead of 7th). N/A
    3.3.93 The 6th house ( 5 from 2) is death inflictor for children. N/A
    3.3.94 7th house (6 form 2nd) is death inflictor for enemies (no further references given beyond 6th confirming Jaimini was referring to ṣaṣṭāṁśa chart). N/A
    3.3.95 Malefics in concerned houses show early death to concerned persons. N/A
    3.3.96 Malefics in 8th from respective significator houses do not show well for their longevity ( i.e. malefic in lagna is 8th form 6th showing destruction of enemies) 50.4 – 50.10 Malefics in 8,9,5 from dasha give troublesome results. Mal in 3 = bad?
    3.3.97 Planets in trines to 7th from concerned houses will cause misfortunes, troubles, or destruction of these people (also trines to 11th). Example malefics in 4,8,12 from lagna is trines to 7th from 6th (ruling enemies) and could ruin enemy, etc.. 50.4 – 50.10 See above ( 5-9 are trines)
    3.3.98 Death also seen 6th from 1,3,8 from lagna/AK in ṣaṣṭāṁśa ( this means  6,8,1 respectively and indicate nature of death, similarly for other carakārakas/houses for other relatives). N/A No specific given here, see signs.
    3.3.99 If aforementioned houses are in Aquarius, person is unaware of death. N/A This could be seen as opposite corollary of below where the benefics give consciousness of death.
    3.3.100 If aforementioned houses is Sagittarius person is aware of death ( Jupiter give awareness/ Sa + Ra deny it). 44.33 Ju/ Ve in 3rd native is conscious of death.
    3.3.101 If aforementioned houses is Capricorn, disease of stomach harm native before death. N/A
    3.3.102 If aforementioned houses are Aquarius enemies can cause death. N/A
    3.3.103 If aforementioned houses are Pisces cause of death is supernatural and goes undiagnosed. N/A
    3.3.104 If aforementioned houses are odd footed sign with Su + Sa, even footed sign aspecting will determine the disease. N/A
    3.3.105 If the even footed signs are 3/9 from lagna the disease relates to the feet. N/A
    3.3.106 If the even footed signs are 6/8 from lagna the disease relates to the fingers. N/A
    3.3.107 If Ke joins the said places the native may lose a limb. N/A
    3.3.108 If the same combo is aspected by malefics native loses his feet (other planets show other diseases). N/A
    3.3.109 Strength of signs to kill is now described (note: Since Jaimini already gave strength rules this elaboration is for signs in rudrāmsa and ṣaṣṭāṁśa). N/A
    3.3.110 Sign associated with benefics is weaker. N/A See general strength rules wherein malefics are strong to kill.
    3.3.111 Strength of 2 signs will depend on the nature of the divisions (whether they are with malefics/benefics). N/A
    3.3.112 Natural sign strength is movable, fixed, dual which is reversed for longevity. N/A See general strength rules
    3.3.113 If signs are equally strong, benefic aspect reduces if by 25%. N/A
    3.3.114 While choosing among trines, the criteria of aspect of benefics is considered first (Note: consider aspects first, then nature, then conjunction of benefics which is reverse from above). N/A
    3.3.115 This aspect of benefics is also considered in the amass ( ṣaṣṭāṁśa/ rudrāmsa) N/A
    3.3.116 If the signs are equally aspected by benefics, movable, fixed, dual in receding order determines strength. N/A
    3.3.117 But a sign with more malefics is strongest. N/A See general strength rules
    3.3.118 Sub period is from 6th from daśā rāśi or its 7th. N/A
    3.3.119 Details of death seen from 3rd from lagna/AL/AK. 44.25 – 44.37 Many results given for death in 3rd. AL/ AK etc. not specified.
    3.3.120 Period of death seen from trines from 8th or 8L. 44.35 – 44.35 Death due 8th from lagna, trines not specified.
    3.3.121 Similarly death of mother and father can be assessed (in rāśi āyur daśā, 8th from 4/9 used, ṣaṣṭāṁśa from 2nd). N/A
    3.3.122 If the aṁśa (ṣaṣṭāṁśa sign) is owned by Mars mother will not die (sthira karaka will not kill its signification) N/A
    3.3.123 Period of daśā is from sign to its lord per cara daśa scheme ( note: this stanza gives the periods for the paryāya daśā, see 1.1.28) 46.155-156 These are the basic cara daśā rules.
    3.3.124 Is ascendant is dual, cara paryāya daśā are applicable ( also called trikoṇa daśā. The gochāra daśā of cara paryāya, sthira paryāya and ubhaya paryāya are also applicable in ṣaṣṭāṁśa) 46.22 Basics of trikoṇa daśā given though no details on application.
    3.3.125 If the ascendant is fixed, sthira paryāya and if movable ubhaya paryāya daśā are applicable (periods of this are like cara daśā from sign to its lord see Rath’s notes for more details on calculations). N/A
    3.3.126 2nd from the kārakas ( sthira) is conducive for good results. N/A
    3.3.127 Death usually occurs in 3rd from AK/AL. 44.25 – 44.37 Basic third house death indications as given above.
    3.3.128 If death is not expected in 3rd, other signs (aspecting these/trines to Rudra, etc.) may be examined. N/A
    3.3.129 There are other methods of longevity estimation that are not quite up to mark (other mathematical models like aṁśāyu, piṇḍāyau, etc. can be quite off. These methods and some of Parāśara are very accurate). N/A BPHS covers many of these variations in longevity calculations and aṣṭakavarga teachings.

    JAIMINI 3.4

    This chapter focuses on fertility and timing of coitus. Some details of fertility were already given in 1.4 though this is another area that Jaimini greatly elaborates on which BPHS does not.

    SUTRA Meaning ŚLOKA Meaning
    3.4.1 Again consider 9th from AL (which was considered in previous quarter). N/A
    3.4.2 Even an upagraha 9th from AL gives wealth and property (dhūma, vyatipat, etc.) . N/A
    3.4.3 Fertility and conception are seen from 1st and 5th (from AL and from lagna/saptāṁśa lagna can also be examined to confirm). 80.2 – 80.4 Physical traits form 1st, birth form 5th, husband from 7th, widowhood from 8th.
    3.4.4 -3.4.5 Again consider ārūdha pāda of 3/9 from Sun and 8th from these (based on 9th month gestation period and it’s 7th) 80.26 – 80.29 8th house placements given of planets that are all negative. Jaimini giving further details here.
    3.4.6 If Me and Ve are in these 8th houses from ārūdha pāda conception is unlikely. N/A
    3.4.7 If Su is in 1/7 from these 8th houses conception unlikely ( hence Su in 2/8 from the ārūdha to cause infertility) N/A
    3.4.8 If Su is in 12th house conception is unlikely. N/A
    3.4.9 If Su is in 6th conception is unlikely. N/A
    3.4.10 In this way see fertility/conception from 3/9 from Lagna ( and AK) N/A
    3.4.11 When Su transits trines to dārapada conception is likely to occur. N/A
    3.4.12 If Su is in 2nd, danger of miscarriage. N/A
    3.4.13 Conception occurs if Su is in D9 sign occupied by Ke. N/A
    3.4.14 Conception can occur from the 11th to 18th day from start of menstruation (see Rath’s notes for many more details here and above). N/A
    3.4.15 If Mo aspects/conjoins Su or ādhāna lagna (conception lagna) pregnancy is protected or conception occurs. 9.7 – 9.11 BPHS shows opposite where malefics can harm the birth. Ra + Mo & Su, aspect of Ma and Sa on lagna child dies in a week.
    3.4.16 Benefics in 7th show normal fetus growth. 80.46 A basic correlation can be seen where 7l or Mo sign auspicious and auspicious planet in 7th, still born viṣa kanyā yoga won’t happen.
    3.4.17 Ve represents the semen ( and becomes karaka for the fetus). N/A
    3.4.18 If Ve in transit aspects/conjoins 5th from VL or during varṇada daśā of signs in trines to VE, conception will occur. N/A
    3.4.19 Mo influencing the 5th from ādhāna lagna promotes conception and pregnancy is successful. 80.34 Mo + Ve in lagna + Sa + Ra with 5th having malefic influence = barren showing some tenuous connections once again for comparison.
    3.4.20 Mo influencing ādhāna lagna results in success too. See 80.34.
    3.4.21 If Mo, Me, or Ve is in ādhāna lagna or 7th, fetus grows without problems. See 80.34.
    3.4.22 – 3.4.23 If Sa + Mo conjoin in 4/9 pregnancy is aborted. See 80.34.
    3.4.24 This miscarriage is due to air entering uterus. N/A
    3.4.25 If Ke is in these places bleeding occurs. The Su and other malefics here give similar results (miscarriage) N/A
    3.4.26 Strength of planets in D12 determine nature of the semen ( semen should not be taken literally but refers to creatures procreative process, even plants) N/A
    3.4.27 In addition to this the lagna and Mo should be in viyoni signs for manifold birth ( Aries, Taurus, Cancer, Leo, Scorpio, first half Sag, Capricorn, Pisces) N/A
    3.4.28 If the ādhāna lagna has Ra + Mo child will be brave. N/A
    3.4.29 If Ra & Mo are in 3/11 from ādhāna lagna child will be timid. N/A
    3.4.30 If Ra + Mo are in 7/10 or in D9 lagna, child will be timid. N/A
    3.4.31 In this manner determine the nature from the 11 & 9th houses. N/A
    3.4.32 The nature is also seen from planets in D9 lagna and their uccha/ nīca, etc. N/A
    3.4.33 Nature also seen from 3, 5, and 12th from D9 lagna. N/A
    3.4.34 -3.3.35 Strongest planet in natural order of strength from Su as strongest, in 7 or 11 will determine sex of child. N/A
    3.4.36 -3.4.37 If this planet is male, a male child born, else a female will be born. N/A
    3.4.38 An example is given ( lord taken as Sa) N/A
    3.4.39 If Sa is with Ke some blood/discharge disorder. N/A
    3.4.40 If Sa + Ra child is very dark ( black). 3.16 – 3.17 Jaimini seems to be working off basic color indications.
    3.4.41 If Sa + Ve child is dark. See 3.16 – 3.17
    3.4.42 If Sa + Ju child is fair ( tawny) See 3.16 – 3.17
    3.4.43 If Sa + Me child is blueish complexion. See 3.16 – 3.17
    3.4.44 If Sa + Ma child has reddish or golden yellow complexion. See 3.16 – 3.17
    3.4.45 If Sa + Mo child has whitish complexion. See 3.16 – 3.17
    3.4.46 Complexion can also be known from lord of D9 (note Saturn as lord of child nothing to do with complexion but is planet conjoining Sa). N/A
    3.4.47 Another example given. N/A
    3.4.48 The moment of the falling of sperm that fertilizes ovum should be known (ādhāna lagna at moment of coitus). N/A
    3.4.49 If malefics influence 2nd, child dies/pregnancy fails. N/A
    3.4.50 If Ve influences 2nd, birth occurs. N/A
    3.4.51 If benefics/malefics influence third from VL predict an increase/decrease of co-born. 5.19 – 5.23 Effects of co-born seen 3-11 from VL for younger/elder.
    3.4.52 If ādhāna lagna or its D9 is in Pisces or Scorpio, could be birth of twins, triplets, etc. (presupposing strength of VL given previously. Usually dual signs should be involved in rāśi and aṁśa for twins. N/A
    3.4.53 Stronger between 7/11 houses form ādhāna lagna when afflicted by malefics produces defects on basis of horās. N/A
    3.4.54 This is an extensive stanza giving birth defect base on horās of 7/11 though some slight defects in the stanza itself are mentioned by Rath. N/A
    3.4.55 In this manner strength of the signs should be ascertained for predicting bodily defects. N/A
    3.4.56 The weak/afflicted sign which aspect the lagna and 2nd, will give their results during the course of the pregnancy. N/A
  • 05 Parashara and Jaimini 4

    JAIMINI 4.1

    This quarter deals with basic concepts but with definitions unique to Jaimini.

    SUTRA Meaning ŚLOKA Meaning
    4.1. 1 Physical body shown by stronger of lagna or Sun. N/A
    4.1. 2 Heart is seen from the 7th houses form lagna or Mo, whichever is stronger (most give 4th, but key is Su, 7th and 7th from Mo should be good for health/longevity). N/A This along with signs from Mo given below are unique to Jaimini, BPHS reference given for comparison.
    4.1. 3 Stronger between lagna and Mo sign will show the head. 4.4 -4.4 ½ Aries t (1st) shows head.
    4.1. 4 Stronger between 2nd from lagna and Mo sign will show the face. 4.4 -4.4 ½ Taurus (2nd) shows face.
    4.1. 5 Stronger between 3rd from ascendant and Mo sign will show the throat. 4.4 -4.4 ½ Gemini  (3rd) shows arms.
    4.1. 6 Stronger between 4th from lagna and Mo sign will show the arms. 4.4 -4.4 ½ Cancer (4th) shows heart.
    4.1. 7 Stronger between 5th from lagna and Mo sign will show the stomach. 4.4 -4.4 ½ Leo (5th) shows stomach.
    4.1. 8 Stronger between 6th from lagna and Mo sign will show the loins. 4.4 -4.4 ½ Virgo (6th) shows hip.
    4.1. 9 Stronger between 7th from lagna and Mo sign will show the back. 4.4 -4.4 ½ Libra (7th) shows area below navel.
    4.1. 10 Stronger between 8th from lagna and Mo sign will show the groins ( anus, genitals, etc.) 4.4 -4.4 ½ Scorpio (8th) shows private areas.
    4.1. 11 Stronger between the 9th from lagna and Mo sign will show the feet. 4.4 -4.4 ½ Sagittarius ( 9th) shows thighs.
    4.1. 12 Stronger between 10th from lagna and Mo sign will show the eyes. 4.4 -4.4 ½ Capricorn (10th) shows the knees.
    4.1. 13 Stronger between the 11th  & 3rd from lagna/Mo sign will show the ears. 4.4 -4.4 ½ Aquarius ( 11th) shows the ankles.
    4.1. 14 Stronger between 12th from lagna and Mo sign shows the nose. 4.4 -4.4 ½ Pisces (12th shows the feet.
    4.1. 15 In this manner the 12 houses show the body parts 4.4 -4.4 ½ Jaimini has put thighs, knees, shanks, and feet in 9th while other put over 9-12 and heart in 7th/arms in 4th instead of 3rd.
    4.1. 16 Strength and development of a part depends on strength of sign representing it. N/A This and next two śloka can be deduced from general strength rules.
    4.1. 17 Weaker of 2 signs representing the body part, if afflicted by malefics will damage it ( thus stronger of 2 houses form lagna/Mo does not have final say). N/A
    4.1. 18 Weaker of the 2 signs showing body part is strengthened by benefic aspects. N/A
    4.1. 19 Development of parts of the fetus can be seen on above basis from ādhāna lagna. N/A
    4.1. 20 Birth chart will give the details of the body parts. N/A
    4.1. 21 If PK or MK are in visible signs(7-12) from lagna/Sun the bodily defects come after birth (by extension if invisible no defects shown). N/A
    4.1. 22 IF lagna/Sun is influenced by PK or MK the child is legitimate. N/A
    4.1. 23 Otherwise the child is illegitimate or eunuch ( particularly I f Me influences and unless Ju does not conjoin influence the lagna/Su/Mo nor do these occupy a division of Ju). N/A
    4.1. 24 In this manner judge strength of weakness of the houses including lagna. N/A
    4.1. 25 Similar results to 2.1.23 come if the body ( lagna/Su) of its lord is in 6th form the karakas. N/A
    4.1. 26 Profession is seen from sign occupied by lord of VL. 6.19 – 6.23 BPHS mainly gives effects of death from VL using śūla daśā, profession not mentioned.
    4.1. 27 Brāhmins are shown by Ju/Mo and traders be Me/Ve. 3.21 Ju/Ve are Brahmins, Me/Mo are traders.
    4.1. 28 Kshatriyas by Su/Ma. 3.21 Same.
    4.1. 29 Śūdras by Sa. 3.21 Same.
    4.1. 30 Ra shows foreigners/distant caste. 3.41 – 3.44 Ra is outcaste.
    4.1. 31 Ke shows sweepers, garbage cleaners, etc (outcaste/ caṇḍāla). 3.41 – 3.44 Ke is mixed caste.
    4.1. 32 The profession can also be seen from 11th from 1/7 of VL. N/A
    4.1. 33 If VL is in 12th from lagna or Su the personal has bad attitudes and gains by loss of others ( criminal activity) N/A
    4.1. 34 If VL is in 2nd from Lagna/Su and conjunction of malefics native has many beautiful women (this was socially acceptable back then and seen as a good thing). N/A
    4.1. 35 If VL is in 3rd from Lagna/Su native is happy and contented. N/A
    4.1. 36 IF all 6 planets from Su to Ve, influence the VL, native is very happy. N/A
    4.1. 37 If Sa, RA, Ke influence VL, particularly in odd signs, native is unhappy and discontented. N/A
    4.1. 38 If above planets are in 12,8,9 from VL native is happy like solar gods mitra and vāruṇa. N/A
    4.1. 39 If above malefics are in 3rd native is emancipated. N/A
    4.1. 40 If a benefic is in the 7th, native is always childish. N/A
    4.1. 41 If prāṇapada (PP) is in Aries strength is indicated. 25.74 Parāśara says if prāṇapada is in ascendant native is emaciated, prone to disease, dumb, mentally weak, etc. ( some astrologers say Jaimini śloka is for this placement instead of Aries. No sense).
    4.1. 42 Prāṇapada in Cancer gives poor longevity 25.77 PP in 4th native is happy, dear to friends, good hearted, etc.
    4.1. 43 Prāṇapada in Aquarius gives sweet temper and charming manners 25.83 PP in 11th native is renowned, virtuous, learned, etc.
    4.1. 44 Prāṇapada in Virgo gives rosy complexion. 25.79 PP in 6th subdued by enemies/relatives, defective digestive fire, etc.
    4.1. 45 Prāṇapada in Leo gives a repulsive appearance. 25.78 PP in 5th is happy, good deeds, kind, fulfills desires.
    4.1. 46 Prāṇapada in Sagittarius gives self-respect and honor. 25.82 PP in 9th gives sons and wealth, fortunate, skillful, etc.
    4.1. 47 Prāṇapada in Aquarius can also show deceit and insincerity 9 (if afflicted by Malefics). 25.83 See above.
    4.1. 48 If only benefics are in 3rd form prāṇapada the native is attached to father. 25.76 PP in 3rd is violent, proud, heard hearted, dirty, devoid of devotion to teachers.
    4.1. 49 If only malefics are in 3rd from prāṇapada the native is attached to mother. N/A
    4.1. 50 If both benefics and malefics are present in 3rd form prāṇapada native is attached to siblings. N/A
    4.1. 51 If benefics in 3rd are aspected by malefics nor vice versa then native is neither attached to parents nor siblings. N/A
    4.1. 52 In same way, sorrow is seen from 5th rom prāṇapada (malefics in 5th give sorrow). N/A
    4.1. 53 If Mo and Ra influence this sorrow will surely happen. N/A
    4.1. 54 If Mo + Ra influence 5th or 9th form lagna/AK native assumes nature of destroyer of all creation. N/A
    4.1. 55 If Cancer aspects, or if Ra + Mo are in cancer then evil results will usually be contained. N/A
    4.1.56 Jupiter aspecting 2,11,7 from lagna/karaka gives good longevity of a hundred years. N/A

    JAIMINI 4.2

    Once again Jaimini takes up his hallmark considerations of death and birth calculations. Here we see him largely breaking away from BPHS and has little correlation with the teachings given there compared to earlier sections of his work.

    SUTRA Meaning ŚLOKA Meaning
    4.2.1 Stronger between the 9th from AL and A7 can be death inflictor. N/A
    4.2.2 Trines to sign occupied by Rudra can also be death inflicting. N/A
    4.2.3 If 8th house is strong it can cause death. 20.8 – 20.13 8L with malefic connection can cause death ( i.e. malefics are strong for death)
    4.2.4 Comparing odd and even signs , odd signs are inherently stronger ( 4th source of strength). N/A
    4.2.5 The sign looks in front ( ādarsa/ sammukha/facial aspect). See stanza 2.3.2 N/A
    4.2.6 The aspect of the sign to signs other than the abhimukha is mild (i.e. Aries to Scorpio is strong, but Leo/Aq weaker) N/A
    4.2.7 If Me/Ve are in Ca/Aq in 10/8 then protruding teeth with exposed lips, closely spaced teeth are indicated. N/A
    4.2.8 If Me/Ve are in Ge/Sag in 3/6 deformities mentioned will not occur. 80.37 These planets/sign rulers shown to give good as Mo, Me, Ve endows children with good qualities and Ju in lagna gives children, satisfaction, wealth, etc.
    4.2.9 The lord of the 3rd from ādhāna lagna in 1,3,8 indicates twins. N/A
    4.2.10 -4.2.11 If , in this combo, 3L is weak, twins will be safely delivered. IF LL is weak likelihood of miscarriage. N/A
    4.2.12 If 8th from lagna/AK is weak delivery occurs a month earlier. N/A
    4.2.13 If benefics are in the 8th in strength, then premature delivery will occur. N/A
    4.2.14 If both benefics and malefic influence 8th, delivery is in normal period. N/A
    4.2.15 If malefics are in 8th or 8th is strong, pregnancy is delayed. N/A
    4.2.16 – 4.2.17 2nd and 9th in strength ensure normal delivery in months. N/A
    4.2.18 Mo + Ju in 11,9,10,or 3rd in strength ensures normal delivery time. N/A
    4.2.19 Ju + Mo in 5th show opposite results. N/A
    4.2.20 Determine stronger of 6th from ādhāna lagna and its 7th. N/A
    4.2.21 Deduct longitude of 6th from HL, resultant sign is śodhya rāśi. N/A
    4.2.22 Resultant sign or its trines, or trines to its 7th, or signs of uccha/nīca of its lord will be Sun sign of birth. N/A
    4.2.23 If two or more signs indicate the probably month of birth, strongest prevails. N/A
    4.2.24 If Ra + Ma are together in quadrants, trines, or upachaya ( from the Śodhya Rāśi) an invalid child or one with damaged knees will be born. N/A
    4.2.25 If Ra is alone in 2nd it can cause miscarriage. N/A
    4.2.26 If Ma aspects Ra in 2nd this will surely occur. N/A
    4.2.27 Sa in 2nd or trines influenced by Jupiter, child is to be discarded in holy waters ( could mean birth of dead child) N/A
    4.2.28 If Sa influencing Ju is in the 6th or 8th from AL/AK then also results of previous stanza are same. N/A
    4.2.29 IF SA is with benefics or in beneficial vargas ( divisions) the evil indicated in previous stanza will be reduced. N/A
    4.2.30 Else, the malefic results prevail. N/A
    4.2.31 The signs in 5th or 12th could be ascendant at birth. N/A
    4.2.32 Ādhāna lagna and sign occupied by AK cannot be the birth lagna. N/A
    4.2.33 The 8th if strong and occupied by the moon can be birth lagna/AK. N/A
    4.2.34 If Mo in 4th s in friendly sign or lagna, these signs can be birth lagna. N/A
    4.2.35 If Mo aspects the 8th or 11th from ādhāna lagna, these can also be birth lagna. N/A
    4.2.36 If lord of ādhāna lagna aspects 8/11 child will be diseased. N/A
    4.2.37 Poverty is indicated by 9L aspecting 8/11 houses. N/A
    4.2.38 A spendthrift is indicated by 111L aspecting 8/11 houses. N/A
    4.2.39 A conscientious worker is indicated by 12L aspecting 11/8. N/A
    4.2.40 A healthy child is indicated by 9L aspecting 11/8 house. N/A
    4.2.41 A strong child is indicated by 5L aspecting 11/8 houses. N/A
    4.2.42 A happy child is shown by 4L aspecting 11/8. N/A
    4.2.43 3L aspecting 11/8 life/fortunes are ruined. N/A
    4.2.44 2L aspecting 8/11 child is handsome. N/A
    4.2.45 If all planets aspect 8/11 child is very strong. N/A
    4.2.46 Aspects in stanza 36-45 should also be seen on 2/4. N/A
    4.2.47 Aspects in stanzas 36-45 should also be seen on VL and AL and their trines. N/A
    4.2.48 Aspects in 36-45 should also be seen on Venus. N/A
    4.2.49 If benefics in friendly signs are in trines to the VL, AL, or Ve native is on the path of liberation/righteous disposition. N/A
    4.2.50 If benefics are in quadrants/trines with kāla bala, native is on the path of emancipation/moksha. N/A

    JAIMINI 4.3

    This is an extensive look at details of varṇada daśā and impact on divisions/houses with lots of female horoscopy and pregnancy details once again. While there is some connections with the alternate ascendants defined in BPHS, we see the trend started previously in Jaimini largely going into his own detailed teachings and shows a marked move away from earlier chapters that were largely in line and derived from BPHS.

    SUTRA Meaning ŚLOKA Meaning
    4.3.1 If Me and Ve are in even signs in conception chart a female is shown. N/A
    4.3.2 Determination of birth time is on basis of lagna, etc. at conception. 4.25 – 4.30 Niṣeka lagna is determined from birth ascendant, seems reversed from this translation.
    4.3.3 – 4.3.5 Degrees, minutes, seconds of lagna are converted into time equivalents to determine time of birth (more notes in Rath) N/A See above.
    4.3.6 2,4, etc. even numbers can be subtracted or added to birth time (in hours). This is used if coitus time is no accurately noted. N/A See above.
    4.3.7 Divide final time gotten by 9 and obtain remainder. N/A See above.
    4.3.8 If remainder has a fraction it is increased to next higher integer. N/A See above.
    4.3.9 Counting planets (weekday then Ra, Ke) the sex, complexion, etc. of child is known. N/A
    4.3.10 If planet in preceding stanza is male, child is such (Su, Ma, Ju, Ra). 3.19 Su/Ma/Ju are males ( no Ra)
    4.3.11 If not female is born. 3.19 Me/Ve are female
    4.3.12 Me/Sa give eunuch ( only if such combinations are present in conception chart). 3.19 Sa/Me are neuters.
    4.3.13 Similarly (from birth time, lagna, HL can be computed and) for determining VL, count zodiacally form Aries to lagna/HL if it is an odd sign. 5.13 – 5.16 For VL, odd signs count direct from Aries to lagna (also from HL). BPHS adds more details as well
    4.3.14 If lagna/HL is in even sign, count in reverse from Pisces to it (many notes given in Rath) 5.13 – 5.16 If natal ascendant even sign count from Pisces to natal lagna in reverse order ( also from HL)
    4.3.15 Varṇada daśā is the signs ( in years) from the lagna ( and other houses) to the VL ( and other varṇadas) 5.17 – 5.18 Parāśara says lagna and HL will start varṇada daśā, etc. BPHS also gives more details on these calculations and above as well.
    4.3.16 The daśā start from the stronger between lagna and HL and follows order of the paryāya daśā. 5.17 – 5.18 Same.
    4.3.17 The looks (including complexion, health, etc.) and longevity( and other  evils) are seen from varṇada daśā. 5.19 – 5.23 Parāśara talks of this under śloka 5.13-26 with malefic in trines to VL terminate life up to daśā of sign occupied by it. Śūla daśā also 7th from VL for spouses longevity, 11th for elder brothers, etc. for other family members. Complexion not mentioned.
    4.3.18 Strongest planet influencing D9 lagna will show complexion. N/A
    4.3.19 -4.3.21 Su/Ma show reddish color; Me/Ve are dark (brown, etc.), and others are black. ( a stanza missing showing Ju/Mo as having fair complexion) 3.16 – 3.17 Su/Ma blood red, Me – grass, Ve – variegated, Ju/Mo – tawny, Sa – Black.
    4.3.22 The prāṇapada traverses 1/3 of the zodiac as the lagna traverses a sign and is added to the Sun’s longitude on the basic of 3 divisions – moveable, fixed, and dual. 3.71 – 3.74 BPHS give PP calculation though seems to be different as BPHS gives more details not given by Jaimini.
    4.3.23 The duration of the day is taken as 60 ghaṭikās to fix the GL ( and iṣṭa ghati) 6.6 – 6.8  BPHS gives more details than Jaimini.
    4.3.24 The bhāva lagna ( also called aṁśa lagna) is 5 ghaṭikās. 6.2 – 6.3 BPHS gives more details than Jaimini.
    4.3.25 The vighaṭikā lagna is obtained by increasing ghatikas 5 times and expunging multiples of 12 signs. 6.4 – 6.5 This calculation not given by BPHS, who includes HL.
    4.3.26 – 4.3.27 If the special ascendants are in odd signs the child is male and if in even signs child is female. N/A
    4.3.28 If they are in both odd/even the child could be either. N/A
    4.3.29 Similar deduction of sex can be done 5th from VL. 6.19 – 6.23 Child can be seen 5th from VL.
    4.3.30 The lagna at time of delivery could be HL. N/A
    4.3.31 If Mo + Ra conjoin HL a female child is expected. N/A
    4.3.32 If male planets conjoin HL the child will be male. N/A
    4.3.33 If Sa + Ma a male is indicated. N/A
    4.3.34 If Sa + Me a female is indicated. N/A
    4.3.35 If Sa + Mo a hunch back is indicated. N/A
    4.3.36 If Sa + Ve a beautiful female is indicated. N/A
    4.3.37 If Sa + Ke an adulteress is indicated. N/A
    4.3.38 If Sa + Ke are also in D9 of mercury, a prostitute/loose morals is shown. N/A
    4.3.39 If Sa + Ve conjoin HL passionate and adept at sex. N/A
    4.3.40 Stanzas from 31-39 also apply in divisional charts. N/A
    4.3.41 If Me + Ve ( conjoin HL) sexual desire is not satisfied by spouse and others will be resorted to. N/A
    4.3.42 If planets in previous stanza are in D9 of Ke, sexual satisfaction does not come from spouse resulting in extramarital relations. N/A
    4.3.43 Other planets indicate hidden relationships/desires. N/A
    4.3.44 The HL in D9 of Ke influenced by Me + Mo shows relations without regard to caste/class. N/A
    4.3.45 If malefics aspect this, native is completely characterless. N/A
    4.3.46 Malefics in strength in the 3rd and 6th indicate widow hood. N/A
    4.3.47 -4.3.48 If Ma/Ke influence 2/6 the native kills the spouse. N/A
    4.3.49 Same results occur when Ma + ke are in same D9. N/A
    4.3.50 If this evil indication is in odd signs, native kills spouse and in even signs takes help of others (benefics can curb killing, but still violent). N/A
    4.3.51 If Ma + Ke conjoin / aspect 12th result is opposite and native may be killed by spouse. N/A
    4.3.52 If Ma/KE is nīca and weak in ṣaḍvarga, native gets killed instead of spouse. N/A
    4.3.53 Beauty is seen form 5th house ( in addition to 1st) N/A
    4.3.54 If Mo is in 2nd in D9, Me + Ve in 3rd, native is brilliant ( Me writers, Ve artists, etc.). N/A
    4.3.55 If Ke is 2nd form D9 lagna or in lagna native has foul odor. N/A
    4.3.56 If Su aspects lagna/2nd in D0 the teeth are deformed. N/A
    4.3.57 If Ma aspects d9 lagna/2nd native is short tempered. N/A
    4.3.58 Malefics influencing D9 lagna/2nd give bad/lowly qualities. N/A
    4.3.59 Benefics influencing D9 lagna/2nd give gentle good qualities. ( lagna intrinsic nature, 2nd moral fiber). N/A
    4.3.60 – 4.3.61 Malefics cause one to be evil ( ascendant) and to do evil (2nd) while benefics give good nature/character. N/A
    4.3.62 If both benefics and malefics results are moderate. N/A
    4.3.63 Similarly planets in 3/6 will be half as strong to indicate benefic/malefic results. N/A
    4.3.64 Planets/signs in trines from 3/6 will influence these. N/A
    4.3.65 Planets in 12th give contrary results. N/A
    4.3.66 Malefics in 8th and 2nd will give favorable results. N/A
    4.3.67 Similarly benefics or both ben/mal decide favorable results that will accrue. N/A
    4.3.68 These results should be studied from the varṇada of the 6th ( and varṇada daśā) N/A
    4.3.69 Results of the D9 lagna being in different houses from birth ascendant is now explained. N/A
    4.3.70 If D9 lagna is in sign 12, native is a wretch with lowly thoughts. N/A
    4.3.71 If D9 lagna is in sign 9th native is passionate and lustful. N/A
    4.3.72 If D9 lagna is in sign in 11th native is liberated from the cycle of rebirth ( more god fearing, this is strong statement). N/A
    4.3.73 If D9 lagna is in 7th, native is sinful ( more notes given by Rath on principles underlying all this here). N/A
    4.3.74 If lagna is in D9 of the Sun, native becomes widow early. N/A
    4.3.75 If Su is in trines to D9 lagna same can be predicted. N/A
    4.3.76 If Mo is in 3rd form D9 lagna or its trines early widow hood may be caused. N/A
    4.3.77 -4.3.78 If Ma is in trines to the Mo or D9 lagna, she will be ugly and have a temper. N/A
    4.3.79 If Me is in trines to D9 lagna/Mo she will be barren. N/A
    4.3.80 If Ju I sin trines to Me in D9 native is chaste and devoted to spouse. N/A
    4.3.81 If Ju I sin trines to D9 lagna, native is also chaste. N/A
    4.3.82 – 4.3.83 If Ve is in trines to D9 lagna, or Mo, ative is bringer of God fortune. N/A
    4.3.84 – 4.3.85 If Sa is in trines to D9 lagna ( or Mo) native is passionate ( if female she is masculine) N/A
    4.3.86 If Ra is in trines to D9 lagna ( or Mo) native is engaged in many activities and is self-conceited. N/A
    4.3.87 -4.3.88 If Ke is in trines to D9 Lagna ( or Mo) native is base. N/A
    4.3.89 Results applicable from VL as well. N/A
    4.3. 90 Malefic results should be seen from varṇada of the 6th. N/A
    4.3.91 Evil results will happen during varṇada daśā of sign occupied by VL, in triṁśāmśa. N/A
    4.3.92 The signs in triṁśāmśa having VL or its trines with malefic can be death inflicting. N/A
    4.3.93 The signs in triṁśāmśa chart in trines to 12th from triṁśāmśa karaka/lagna can be death inflicting ( 12 from carakāraka and its trines in triṁśāmśa can also cause death/evils). N/A
    4.3.94 The strength of the planets in the divisional chart are to be considered independently. N/A
    4.3.95 The Su sign and Ve shall rule first month of pregnancy. N/A
    4.3.96 2nd from Su and Mo rule next month. N/A
    4.3.97 3rd from Su + MA rule next month. N/A
    4.3.98 4th from Su + Me rule next month. N/A
    4.3.99 5th from Su & Ju rule next month. N/A
    4.3.100 6th from Su & Sa rule next month. N/A
    4.3.101 7th from Su & Ra rule next month. N/A
    4.3.102 8th form Su & Ke rule next month. N/A
    4.3.103 In this manner the ten houses from the Su rule 10 months while planet rule 8 months with exception of 2nd and 10th N/A
    4.3.104 The 7th form ādhāna lagna & 2nd/7 from therefrom ( 8th) should be examined N/A
    4.3.105 If benefics are influencing this they cause no danger to pregnancy. N/A
    4.3.106 If both benefics and malefics influence some problems may come. N/A
    4.3.107 If lords of the month of birth are in 10th or 12th or in trines to Me and afflicted, the body part indicated may be damaged/deformed. N/A
    4.3.108 Planets placed in 12th and 8th form triṁśāmśa lagna can also indicate deformity/danger of miscarriage. N/A
    4.3.109 Planets in 4/11 from triṁśāmśa lagna also show evil. N/A
    4.3.110 Appearance and other details are seen form D9 lagna. N/A
    4.3.111 If Ra or Ke is in D9 lagna there will be some blockage or obstruction during pregnancy. N/A
    4.3.112 If D9 lagna is vargottama the obstruction occurs at time of delivery. N/A
    4.3.113 If planets are strong in D9 lagna, delivery is difficult requiring medical aid. N/A
    4.3.114 If D9 lagna is in 4th or 6th from ādhāna lagna, delivery is difficult requiring medical intervention. N/A
    4.3.115 If D9 lagna is in 7, 10, 5th delivery requires considerable effort. N/A
    4.3.116 Similar results of D9 lagna should be seen from D9 of the moon. N/A
    4.3.117 If the Mo is in D9 of the 3rd or 10th sign from it there is danger to mothers life. N/A
    4.3.118 The counting of houses is zodiacal from the 2 even signs Taurus Scorpio (they are vimṣapada)and reverse for the two odd signs Leo/Aq ( they are samapada) N/A
    4.3.119 This method of counting ( on moon sign being vimṣa/samapada) should be used for determining 3/10 house referred to in stanza 4.3.117 N/A
    4.3.120 If 3/10 are strong a male child will be born. N/A
    4.3.121 If 3/10 are weak a female child will be born. N/A
    4.3.122 The looks and sex of the child is also seen form Ju and the Su. N/A
    4.3.123 Similarly determine look/sex from ādhāna lagna. N/A

     JAIMINI 4.4

    This section primarily deals with conception again as well as the sexual act itself and concludes the work, once again continuing Jaimini’s refinement of BPHS principles on his own select topics as there is almost no direct correlation at all in this chapter.

    Sutra Meaning ŚLOKA Meaning
    4.4.1 Possibility of children seen from 5/9. 16.1 – 16.3 Focus is on the 5th for children though śloka 16.7 also references 9l in 5th giving children and overcoming difficulties suggesting some connections.
    4.4.2 Benefics in trines and quadrants to 5th, placed in beneficial vargas give children. 16.1 – 16.3 5L in trines/kendra gives children but if 5l is weak, with malefics, nīca, etc. does not.
    4.4.3 If Su, Ma, Sa are so placed they will give suns. N/A
    4.4.4 If Mo, Me so placed they give daughters. N/A
    4.4.5 Planets influencing the 5th or 5L will also indicate children ( ability to have is 5th, # of children from planets with 5L). 16.1- 16.3 See above
    4.4.6 Similarly draw a chart from first menstruation to judge children, spouse, widowhood, etc. (can study this like natal chart to see how native has progressed). N/A
    4.4.7 A malefic in the 8th indicates widowhood. If other malefics also aspect this widowhood is sure to occur. 80.54 Opposite dictum given where benefic in the 8th w/o malefic aspect and husband dies first.
    4.4.8 If malefic in 8th is exalted, she becomes a widow late in life. N/A May be related to 80.54
    4.4.9 If malefic in 8th is nīca, she becomes widow early. N/A May be related to 80.54
    4.4.10 If malefic in 8th is neither uccha or nīca or mixed, she becomes widow in middle age. N/A May be related to 80.54
    4.4.11 If Mo & Ma aspect 8th she will surely become a widow. 80.47 Ma in 1, 2, 4, 7, 8 with no benefic aspect gives widowhood ( emphasizes Mars influence on this).
    4.4.12 If 10th from here indicates female a daughter is born. N/A
    4.4.13 If malefic are in 11/3 she will still have the child. N/A
    4.4.14 Malefics influencing the 7th show the couple will make love like animals. N/A
    4.4.15 Metals in the surrounding, color of place, complexion/caste, are seen from 7th house (describing place of mating). N/A
    4.4.16 Signs aspecting the 7th (if stronger) can describe the nature of sex act or person by whom lady is impregnated. N/A
    4.4.17 If planet in 7th is exalted or in own D9, or if 7th has beneficial navāṁśa the sex act was normal. N/A
    4.4.18 If planet is in 1st decante the sex act was like animals. N/A
    4.4.19 If planet is in middle decanate, sex act was normal. N/A
    4.4.20 If planet is in 3rd decanate sex act is like insect ( these also apply to natal charts) N/A
    4.4.21 If both benefics are present the mating place was decent. N/A
    4.4.22 If Su & Ve are in 7th mating was illegal/immoral. N/A
    4.4.23 If others are in the 7th the sex is neither illegal or immoral. N/A
    4.4.24 Ke is a benefic for this purpose. N/A
    4.4.25 However malefic influence on 7th could indicate otherwise. N/A
    4.4.26 -4.4.27 Su, Ra, Ve, Ju influencing 7th indicates fruitful copulation. N/A
    4.4.28 This should also be seen from the Mo sign. N/A
    4.4.29 These planets/ 7th in D9 of Jupiter or AK also show conception. N/A
    4.4.30 These planets in own D9 or those of Mars or in Pisces D9 conception is likely. N/A
    4.4.31 If the full Mo is sandwiched between Ra & Ma in a sign then conception is likely. N/A
    4.4.32 Mo in beneficial division or with good aspects shows conception. N/A
    4.4.33 Mo in D9 of friends shows possibility of conception. N/A
    4.4.34 -4.4.35 Mo in 1st, 4, 8 houses both in rāśi or D9 shows likelihood of conception. N/A
    4.4.36 Individual pregnancies are seen after every two signs. N/A
    4.4.37 Sex of the child as male/female are seen from these houses. N/A
    4.4.38 -4.4.39 Birth of children I seen from Me/Ke or from 9th house form lagna/Mo. N/A
    4.4.40 Birth of children also seen form lords of lagna or 3rd. N/A

    FURTHER CONSIDERATIONS: As noted before BPHS covers many topics not covered in Jaimini and were not referenced if they did not connect to Jaimini in some way. This includes numerous sections such as chapters describing philosophical underpinning of the creation, avatars, many details on the planet and sign definitions, finding planetary positions, surroundings at time of birth, various effects of house and house lords (which Parāśara seems to emphasize more than Jaimini), ṣaḍvarga, avasthā of planets, aṣṭakavarga system, planetary rays, sudarṣana cakra, results of pancamahapuruśa-elements-gunas, lost horoscopy, conditions for asceticism, notes on body markings and body parts, curses from previous births, flaws in times, and remedial measures. Please see relevant chapters there for more information.

  • 06 Comparison of Classics

    Contents of the Jyotiṣa’s main classics

    [By Gaura Hari dāsa, copyright Science of Light]

    These comparisons indicate schools as well as the evolution of the system of astrology in India.

    Ślokas Bṛhat Jātaka (6CE) Sārāvalī (10 CE) Phaladīpikā (13 CE) Jātaka Pārijāta (15 CE)
    Opening prayer Prayers to the Sun, asking for speech. He glorify the Sun in many ways (1.1). Prayers to the Sun are offered referring to the three sandhyas (1.1). Prayers to the Sun and a reference for the relativity of the day of the devas, manes and humans (1.1). Further prayers to other deities is offered in the next verse (1.2). Vaidyanātha offers prayers to the Sun, comparing him to Lord Viṣṇu (1.1).
    Reasons behind the creation of the work This concise work is for those persons that failed to cross the vast ocean of horoscopy (1.2). This work was created with the essence of the teachings of Bṛhat Jātaka, as well as the teachings of the Yavanas, etc. (1.2-4). This work is offered as a lucid and simple version of the teachings of sage Parāśara and sage Atri (1.2). This work is for the enjoyment of those who appreciate the nectarous sweets of astrological truths. It also abridge the Sārāvalī of Kalyāna (1.2).
    On the word horā The word horā is explained as a corruption of the word ahorātra, which means “day and night” (1.3). He further explains the word horā and eulogizes the horā-śāstra (2.1-5).
    Definition of a rāśi Explanation of what is a rāśi and where it begins is given, as well as different definitions of rāśi, like ṛkśa, bha, etc (1.4). The Sun created all the planets and the 12 months after the Pralaya is what Kalyāna says (3.1-2). He also quotes what Varahāmihira says on signs and their different definitions like kśetra, ṛkśa, etc (1.4-7).
    Kalāpurūṣa The body parts corresponding to the rāśis from aries onwards are given (1.4). Regarding gemini, he differs associating him with the arms. He also says that the rāśis occupied by the malefics will be weak (3.5-6). Besides the body parts, the rāśi-sandhis in jala-rāśis is mentioned as well (1.4). The Kalāpurūṣa is presented following the same lines of Bṛhat Jātaka and Phaladīpikā (1.8).
    Further informations on rāśis Shape, Graha lordship, sandhis, names, mode of ascension, modality, colors, etc., of the rāśis are presented concisely (1.5-20) through the 1th chapter. The solar and lunar halves of the zodiac are presented (3.9-10). Lengthy of ascension (3.37-38), etc., are some additional informations presented in the 3th chapter. Additional informations about directions, mūla-dhatu-jīva rāśis, etc., are given (1.5-9) in the 1th chapter. Very detailed informations are given in the 1th adhyaya. It is superior to all the other classics in content on rāśis.
    Varga calculation Varahāmihira makes use of ṣaḍ-varga (1.6-12). He also quotes a different kind of calculation for horā and drekkāṇa (1.12). Kalyāna employs sapta-varga. The varga calculation is presented in the 3th chapter. Daśa, sapta and ṣaḍ-varga schemes are presented in the cp. 3. Mantreśvara employs a different kind of calculation for D16 (3.6). Daśa-varga is used by Vaidyanātha (1.30-43). He also quotes the ṣaḍ and sapta-varga scheme (1.461/2-481/2).
    Drekkāṇa The division of the body based on the D3 and how to interpret it is described in 5.24-26. The figures of the 36 drekkāṇas are treated in the 27th chapter. The division of the body based on D3 is given with a brief description on how to interpret it (4.3-6). Different categories of drekkāṇas, like sarpa, chatuśpāda, etc., are described (3.13). The sarpa, paśa, nīgaḍa and pakṣī drekkāṇas are described (5.55), as well as the khara (5.56).
    Utility of the vargas 21th chapter deals with the results of the Grahas/lagna in the vargas. Without knowledge of the vargas, one cannot lay even a step forward in the direction of astrology (3.12). Chapter 3th talks about vargas. Vargas are treated in the 1th chapter.
    Vaiśeṣikāṁśa It is considered (3.7-10) with a different approach from Parāśara. The definition of vaiśeṣikāṁśa (1.44-461/2) is different from that of Phaladīpikā.
    Vargottama Varahāmihira says that the 1th, the central and the last navāṁśa for movable, fixed and dual rāśis are the vargottama places (1.14). Same definition of Varahāmihira. Kalyāna further says that the person becomes important in his circle when he has a vargottama lagna (3.13). Same definition of Varahāmihira is presented (3.1). Same definition of Varahāmihira (1.34).
    Bhāvas Varahāmihira concisely exposes the matters of bhāvas (1.15). He also talks about upachayas, kendras, different names of bhāvas, like tapa for 9th, etc (1.16-18). Ślokas 26-33 of the cp. 3 gives definitions of bhāvas. He also shows how kendra, panaphara and apoklima divide the life span in three phases (3.32). Expressions used for the bhāvas (1.10-16), the concept of hidden houses (1.16), divisions of bhāvas in dusthānas, kendras, etc., (1.17-18) are all treated by Mantreśvara. Many names are given to the bhāvas and their classifications are also presented (1.40-55).
    Sources of strength for the bhāvas The aspect of Mercury, Jupiter or the own lord is recognized by Varahāmihira (1.19). Agreeing with Varahāmihira, Kalyāna add the aspect of a friend of the bhāveśa (3.25). The calculation of bhava-bala is described in the 4th chapter. The aspect or occupation of benefics or of their own lords and free from malefic influence confers good results (1.55).
    Source of strength for the planets Ṣaḍ-bala is considered in the 2th chapter. The 4th chapter deals with ṣaḍ-bala. The 4th chapter deals with ṣaḍ-bala. Chandrakriya, Chandra avasthās and Chandravelas is also mentioned. From the 33th śloka to the 40th śloka of the 2th chapter sources of strength including the ṣaḍ-bala are mentioned.
    Mṛtyu bhāgas They are mentioned in (10.111-114). They differ from those bhagas given in Sārāvalī (13.10). The degrees indicated are different from those of Phaladīpikā (1.57).


    All the puṣkāra-bhāgas are indicated (1.58).
    Characteristics of the Grahas The descriptions of Grahas as well as their balas (strengths) are given in the 2th chapter. Varahāmihira says that Mercury is a śūdra and that Saturn is a chandala (2.7), a view that persists in Phaladīpikā, Sārāvalī and Jātaka Pārījāta. The descriptions are given in the 4th chapter including the ṣaḍ-bala.

    Descriptions of the results of the Grahas based on their positions and of the different strengths gained by them is described in the 5th chapter

    Phaladīpikā agree with Bṛhat Jātaka about the Grahas, but it gives a more detailed description of them through his 2th chapter. It mentions the different kārakas for father and mother in case of day and night births (2.25). A relation between the planets and the five senses is also given in this chapter (2.26). A very long and detailed description of the Grahas and their ṣaḍ-bala is given in the 2th chapter which includes their division as luminous, tārā and chaya (2.8), a relation of them with the four vedas (2.15), their avasthās (2.16-18), kārakas of the bhāvas (2.51), kāraka-bhāva-naṣṭa (2.52), strength of the Grahas in Graha-yuddha (2.60), etc.
    Rāhu & Ketu They are not mentioned in the 4th chapter on Graha descriptions. Descriptions of them as well as their relationships are given (2.33-35). They (and Gulika) are also said to have enmity with the Sun (2.26). The rāśis in which they get strength is mentioned (4.5). Some descriptions of them are given through the 2th chapter and it includes their places of strength (2.68 and 2.71).
    Upagrahas & aprakasa grahas A complete chapter on them are given in the 25th chapter. In the 5th verse of the 4th chapter a source of strength for Pariveśa and Indrachapa is presented. The upagrahas and aprakasa grahas are mentioned in 2.4-5, and Gulika’s results in 9.1-9.
    Dṛṣṭis (aspects) Graha dṛṣṭis are considered (2.13). Graha dṛṣṭis are considered (4.32-33). Graha dṛṣṭis are considered and only the aspect of 7th house although he mentions that some scholars consider special dṛṣṭis also (4.9). Graha dṛṣṭis are considered (2.30-31)
    Gems The gems of the Grahas are given (2.29). It is also mentioned in Jātaka-Pārījāta (2.21).
    Bādhaka The bādhaka concept is presented (2.48)
    Counteracting Grahas Mercury counteract Rāhu, Saturn counteract Mercury, etc (2.73-74).
    Diseases and problems caused by the Grahas The 14th chapter is dedicated to this matter. Descriptions of diseases and other problems are given (2.75-81).
    Avasthās Diptādi avasthās and their effects are described (5.2-13). Bālādi avasthās are differently described (5.47-50). Some avasthās (diptādi) are described (3.18-20). Diptādi (2.16-18), bālādi (2.84) and jāgrādi avasthās (2.85) are described.
    Retrogression An exalted planet in retrogression loses his power (5.14). Benefics gain strength to do good and malefics to do bad when retrograde (5.39). A retrograde planet is termed strong even when in debilitation (4.4). In the 2th chapter when talking about things that strengthen the Grahas, he mentions the retrogression as well.
    Manifold births 3th chapter is dedicated to it. 55th chapter. 3th adhyaya is dedicated to it.
    On conception and the conditions at birth The 4th and 5th chapters are dedicated to it. 8th and 9th chapters are dedicated to this theme. From the 11th to the 80th śloka of the 3th adhyaya, this is treated in a detailed manner.
    Evils at birth The 6th chapter is dedicated to bālāriṣṭa yogas. The 10th chapter is entirely dedicated to this theme. In the 13th chapter, some yogas are described as well as the cause of death being related to the parents according to the year in which death occurs (3-4). 4th chapter deals with it. The first three ślokas deal with important matters.
    Antidotes for the evils 11th chapter is dedicated to lunar yogas capable of counteracting the evils.

    The 12th chapter deals with other ariṣṭa-bhangas.

    The 5th verse of the 13th chapter talks about remedial measures to be performed in the case of evils at birth.

    Ślokas 20-24 deals with some ariṣṭa-bhangas.

    The nullification of evils are described in the 71-107 ślokas of the 4th chapter.
    On longevity The 7th chapter deals with longevity calculations. The method used is piṇḍayurdāya and it is based on Satyacharya teachings. The 40th chapter is dedicated to longevity calculations. It presents three methods: aṁśayu, piṇḍayu and nisargayu. 13th chapter deals with longevity. It presents a method of three pairs (13.14) which is unique. Many other yogas for different life spans are indicated. In the 5th adhyaya eight methods of longevity calculation are presented. There are certain conditions for the use of this methods. The determination of the māraka graha/daśā/transit is also described in this same chapter as well as the conditions of death and the destination after this (5.72-124).
    22th drekkāṇa Ślokas 22-45 of the 47th chapter talks about the 22th drekkāṇa and its effects. 17th chapter mentions the 22th drekkāṇa lord. The 22th drekkāṇa and the khara is described (5.56/5.72/6.11)
    64th navāṁśa The 64th navāṁśa lord from the Moon is described (5.53/5.56).
    Bhūr bhuvaḥ svaḥ The relation of the rāśis with these three worlds is described (5.119).
    Exit from the world 25th chapter. 47th chapter. The 17th chapter deals with this. The 14th with diseases, death, past and future births. The 6th chapter of this work deal with it in a very detailed manner.
    Remedial measures Chapter 10th mentions some remedial measures. Remedial measures are recommended (2.83).
    Lunar yogas 13th chapter deals with this. Varahāmihira gives the results of the yogas based on the Grahas forming them. The 13th chapter presents them with detailed descriptions of the Grahas forming the yogas. A different kind of sunapha and anapha yoga based on kendras is given (13.8-9). The 6th chapter deals with lunar and many other yogas. It also differentiate them as malefic or benefic kind. Ślokas 71-82 of the 7th chapter.
    Solar yogas 14th chapter deals with this including detailed descriptions of the Grahas forming the yogas. The 6th chapter deals with solar and many other yogas. It also differentiate them as malefic or benefic kind. Ślokas 121-124 of the 7th chapter.
    Conjunction of Grahas 14th chapter gives the results of double planetary conjunctions. 15th to 19th chapter deals with conjunctions of two, three, four, five and six Grahas respectively. The 18th chapter talks about conjunctions of two planets. The 8th chapters talks about conjunctions of two, three, four, five and six Grahas.
    Combinations for renunciation 15th chapter is dedicated to describe the ascetic yogas. 20th chapter deals with this including a description of various kinds of conjunctions of four or more Grahas. 27th chapter is entirely dedicated to this. In the 15th chapter, in the section which deals with 10th house, the pravrajya yogas are described.
    Nakṣatras The 16th chapter details the results of the nakṣatra occupied by the Moon at birth. 26th chapter talks about transits of planets through the nakṣatras, including the sarvatobhadra chakra. Janma-nakṣatra is described in 9.84-90. Calculations of viṁśottarī daśā from different nakṣatras are mentioned in the 18th chapter.
    Source of livelihood The 10th chapter is entirely dedicated to this. 33th chapter talks about 10th house and the planets in 10th from Moon and ascendant. The 5th chapter is entirely dedicated to this and includes the 10th from the Sun also. The 15th chapter deals with this in the section about 10th house.
    Yogas Rāja, nābhasa, lunar, dvīgraha, pravrajya, miśra and bhanga yogas are all treated in chapters 11th, 12th, 13th, 14th, 15th, 22th and 23th. Lunar, solar, rāja, rāja yoga bhanga, mahāpurūṣa yogas are treated in the chapters 13th, 14th, 35th, 37th and 39th respectively. The 6th chapter deals with a lot of yogas, including three kinds of parivartana yoga, twelve bad and good yogas related to the bhāvas, etc. The 6th chapter deals with yogas bhangas and the 7th chapter deals with rāja and many other kinds of yogas.
    Rāja yogas 11th chapter. 35th chapter. 7th chapter. 7th chapter.
    Nabhasa yogas 12th chapter deals with 32th nabhasa yogas in a concise form. 32 kinds of these yogas are treated in the 21th chapter. The 39-41 śloka of the 6th chapter gives the sāṅkhya nabhasa yogas. 7th chapter deals with them.
    Effects of the Grahas in the rāśis The 17th chapter deals with the results of the Moon’s rāśi and the 18th with the results of the other Grahas. The 19th chapter with aspects on Moon’s rāśi. From 22th to 29th chapter the effects of the Grahas in the rāśis receiving the aspects of other Grahas are described. Ślokas 39-55 of the 8th chapter talks about it.
    Effects of Grahas in the bhāvas The 20th chapter deals with it concisely. 30th chapter deals with this in a much more detailed form than any other classic. The 8th chapter is entirely dedicated to this. Ślokas 56-99 of the 8th chapter talks about it.
    Lagna-rāśi and its vargas 7th śloka of 21th chapter talks about navāṁśa lagna. Chapters 48-51 deals with ascendants and their horas, drekkāṇas and navāṁśas. 9th chapter. Ślokas 104-121 of the 9th chapter deals with ascendants, their horas, drekkāṇas, navāṁśas and dvadāṣāṁśas.
    Bhāva effects Chapter 32 and 33 deals with the results of 9th and 10th bhāva. 34th chapter deals with other bhāvas. Chapter 10 and 12 deals with 5th and 7th bhāva. 15th and 16th chapter talks about the results of all the bhāvas. Chapter 11 to 15 deals extensively with the results of all the 12 bhāvas.
    Aṣṭakāvarga 9th chapter. Chapters 53 and 54. The 54 gives the results of BAV of all the Grahas. Chapters 23 and 24. The 24th is given according to Horā sārā. The 10th chapter.
    Female horoscopy 24th chapter. 46th chapter. 11th chapter. 16th chapter.
    Year, month, tithī, etc., results In the 10th chapter, śloka 15th the tithīs are mentioned as well as some karaṇas. The 9th chapter deals extensively with year, month, tithī, day of birth, etc.
    Prone & supine Grahas which are before the Sun is called prone and those who are behind supine. Supine Grahas produce happiness and wealth (2.70).
    Daśās Mūla and Nisarga daśā is mentioned in the 8th chapter.
    [no sub-daśa]
    In the chapter 41th the Mūla and Nisarga daśā are explained. Chapters 42-44 deals with the effects of sub-periods, evil effects of daśās and the antidotes for evil daśās, respectively. In the 19th chapter the Viṁśottarī daśā is given, with its results being explained in chapter 20th and 21th. The 22th chapter deals with Kālachakra, Nisarga, Aṁśa and Pindayur daśā. It also mentions different stars for calculating daśās. The 17th chapter deals extensively with Kālachakra daśā and the 18th chapter with Viṁśottarī and Śūla daśā. Different stars for daśā calculation and the Navatāra scheme are also mentioned.
    Transits Daśā praveśa chakra is mentioned in chapter 8th. Chapters 41th and 44th talks about the daśā praveśa chakra in some ślokas. Chapter 26th deals with transits from Moon, nakṣatras and sarvatobhadra chakra. It also mentions the vedhas of all the Grahas. Ślokas 6-9 of the 18th chapter deals with daśā praveśa chakra.
    Naṣṭa jātaka 26th chapter. Chapters 48-51 deals with lagna and its vargas for rectification. Chapter 52th deals with naṣṭa jātaka calculation.
    Conclusion Varahāmihira is the son of the brahmin Adityadāsa, from whom he received his knowledge. He says that he received the boon of Sūrya-deva and due to his worship of him as well as of Vaśistha and his father Adityadāsa that he composed this work (28.9-10). Mantreśvara, an astrologer and brahmin born in Tirunveli, says that by the grace of godess Sukun he did this work for the enjoyment and benefit of other astrologers (28.5-6). Vaidyanātha, the son of the illustrious Venkadatri, mentions that was by the grace of the Sun and other planets that he did this work, which contains the nectar of the horary science (18.177).



    • Bṛhat Jātaka translation and commentary of N. Chidambaram Aiyar, second edition – 1905.
    • Phaladīpikā translation and commentary of Dr. G. S. Kapoor, edition of 2012.
    • Sārāvalī translation and commentary by R. Santhanam, edition of 2014.
    • Jātaka Pārījāta translation and notes by V. Subramanya Sastri, edition of 2014.

    Hari Om Tat Sat

  • 07 Yavana Jataka Critical Study

    David Pingree’s study of the the Yavanajataka of Sphujidhvaja

    In order to follow along with the comparison easily, on the next page I have designated a color to each broad culture/tradition seen in Pingree’s work and given  abbreviations for individual texts within that culture which are referenced in the commentaries. When no specific text is referenced the culture is used instead.  This allows for seeing the extant of each concept in each tradition readily, though the main focus is on Greek-Indian parallels by and large.  One may want to print the next page as a reference when/if looking at deeper comparison of specific texts referenced.

    I have tried to be complete as possible, though a few minor texts/details may have escaped due to unfamiliarity with some of the texts or the sheer volume and occasionally confusing nature of the references, though the listing is by and large accurate. Page numbers are listed for each entry if one wishes to see the exact comparison in Pingree’s original work, which I have summarized here. Please note that Pingree makes many extrapolations and often unfounded conclusions based on some of this literature which has been marked on occasion and his understanding of astrological principles should be approached with great circumspect.

    Overall, from this first chapter alone, which compromises roughly 25% of his commentary over the entire text, we see that the vast majority of entries have extensive grounding in the Indian tradition yet more often than not are either non-existent, scant, or of quite varied usage within the Greek tradition. Pingree’s central claim that this knowledge was copied from the Greek works is impossible to conclude given even a cursory glance over this comparison. Given the evidence, some logical conclusions might be that a) this knowledge was shared amongst all ancient cultures, b) the Indians (or the Vedic tradition) developed this knowledge far greater than other cultures and c) the Indians have preserved this knowledge better than other cultures from this epoch or d) India is indeed the origin of much of the ancient astrological lore from which cultures such as the Greeks took pieces of over time including those from other sources.  -Frank Vasquez

    TEXT REFERENCED BY PINGREE  [need to color code for full use]

    Indian (IN):

    Sphujidhvaja (SP)

    Satya (SY)

    Varāhamihira (VH)

    Guaṇākara (GK)

    Vaidyanātha (VY)

    Pṛthuyaśas (PY)


    Parāśara (PA)

    Bādarāyana (BD)

    Horāsāra (HS)

    Mantreśvara (MT)

    Kalyāṇavarman (KV)

    Mīnarāja (MR)


    Bhāskara (BK)

    Śrutakīrti (SK)

    Visnuśarman (VS)

    Achmat (AT)

    Garga (GA)

    Punjarāja (PR)

    Utpala (UP)

    Vasiṣṭha (VT)

    Gaṇapati (GP)

    Kāśīnatha (KN)

    Rāma (RM)

    Śrīpatī –(SP)

    Keśava (KS)

    Gārgi (GG)

    Divākara (DK)

    Devakīrti (DT)

    Śivarāja (SR)

    Kṛsṇa (KS)

    Bhāradvāja (BV)

    śivarAnonymous –(AY)


    Greek/Hellenistic (GK):

    Firmicus Maternus (FM)

    Firmicus (FC)

    Manilius (MS)

    Valens (VL)

    Protagoes of Nicea (PN)

    Dorotheus (DT)

    Ptolemy (PT)

    Hephaestio (HP)

    Porphyrius (PP)

    Teucer (TC)

    Rhetorius (RT)

    Antiochus (AT)

    Sextus Emperius (SE)

    Paulus Alexandrinus (PA)

    Thrasyllus (TL)

    George of Antioch (GA)

    John Camaterus (JC)

    Achmat (AT)

    Pseudo-Serapio (PS)

    Martianus Capella (MC)

    Heliodorus (HD)

    P Mich (PM)

    Petosiris (PT)

    Antigonus (AG)

    CCGG (CC)

    Manetho (MT)

    Julianus Laodicensis (JL

    Plotinus (PL)

    Palchus (PC)

    Theodore Podromus (TP)

    Balbillus (BB)

    Teucer of Babylon (TB)

    Servius (SV)

    Isidore of Seville (IS)

    Beda (BD)

    Anonymous (AY)


    Arabic (AB):

    Abū Ma’shar (AM)

    Al Bīrūnī (AB)

    Dorotheus (DT)?

    Alī ibn al-Rijāl ( AR)

    Umar ibn al-Farrukhān (UF)

    Al-Battānī (AT)

    Al-Kindī (AK)

    Ali ibn abī al-Rijāl (AR)

    Al-Qabīsī (AQ)

    Anonymous (AY)

    Babylonian/Chaldean (BB):

    Mulapin (MP)

    Teucer (TC)

    Egyptian (EG) :

    Petosiris (PS)

    Nechepso (NC)


    Chapter 1

    Yavana Jataka Translation Connections from Pingree
    1-10 are missing
    11. with the twelve zodiacal signs, which are auspicious or inauspicious and which have various forms, colors, and shapes. ACCORDING TO PINGREE partial and early zodiac sign references are seen in BB texts (1124 – 1103 B.C.) with (MP) as first tablet (1200 to 100B.C.), boundary stones of Nebudchadnezzar 1 (1124-1103 BC). SP/Indian zodiac is largely in line with GK sources though with suggestions of EG connection ( See Egyptian Astronomical Texts by R.A. Parker). By 538-331 BC all zodiacs considered in Mesopotamia represent same as in Greek tradition. Earliest reference to 12 equal arc does not antedate 500 BC from available *written* sources. Pingree claims Islam took their zodiac from Greeks and not India with no substantiation.
    12. They say that this (zodiac), in which arise the seven planets, rises in a clockwise direction, and moves in strict accord with the (proper) order (of the signs) up to mid-heaven; the visible half continues on to the western (horizon).
    13. . . . (their) distinctions are established . . Below are a couple specifics listed by Pingree in random order within his commentary, though the Zodiac seems to have seen its place in all ancient cultures to various degrees based on above and notes seen in verse 27 and 28.

    Pg.195 – 198

    14. The first (sign) is traditionally said to have the shape of a ram; it is called by the ancients the head of Kala. Its places are the paths of goats and sheep, caves, mountains, (hideouts of) thieves, and (places tihere there are) fire, metals, mines, and jewels
    15. The second is said to have the shape of a bull; it is the mouth and throat of the Creator. Its places are those of forests, mountains, ridges, elephants, herds of cows, and farmers. MP-Bull of Anu

    IN – Pingree dismisses this sign,which is seen on numerous  physical relics, as not bearing zodiacal resemblances without any solid evidence to the contrary (see. P. 197-198 for discussion)

    16. The third is a couple (a woman and a man) holding a lyre and a club (respectively); it is the region of the shoulders and arms of Prajspati. Its places are those of dancers, singers, artisans, and women, and (places for) playing games, sexual intercourse, gambling, and recreation. BB “ Great Twins”

    GK- Heracles and Apollo with club and lyre.

    EG- Male Shu and female Tefnut with club and lyre

    SP-Mithuna, holding club and lyre are taken from Egyptian symbols according to Pingree who gives no evidence for this claim. Pingree dismisses this sign,which is seen on numerous  physical relics, as not bearing zodiacal resemblances without any solid evidence to the contrary (see. P. 197-198 for discussion)

    17. The fourth, which has the form of a crab standing in water and which is the region of the chest, is called Karki (Karkyos). To it belong meadows, wells, and sandy beaches, and its places are the pleasant play-grounds of goddesses
    18. The authorities state that the fifth is a lion on a mountain peak; it is the region of the heart of Prajapati. Its places are forests, fortresses, caves, woods, mountains, and the dwelling-places of hunters and kings BB – Lion/Lioness

    EG- Mountain peak Leo stands on, though to be source of SP, though Pingree gives no evidence for the claim.

    GK- Snake appears below Lions feet only one, Pingree ignores fact that Lions don’t exist in Greece so obviously the entire zodiac could not have originated there

    IN – Pingree dismisses this sign, which is seen on numerous  physical relics, as not bearing zodiacal resemblances without any solid evidence to the contrary (see. P. 197-198 for discussion)

    19. A maiden standing in a boat on the waters and holding a torch in her hand is sixth, as those who are clever on the subject of time say; it is the belly of the Creator. Its lands are grassy and (suitable for) women, sexual intercourse, and crafts. MP-The Furrow

    EG – Isis holding a torch opn a boat

    GK- Carries Isis iconography too, she is on coins of Alexandria

    IN-Attributes sailors of Alexendria to Virgo inclusion in their zodiac .SY, VH, GK, VY, PY, have ear of wheat which Pingree claims derives form Greek origin giving no proof. Pingree dismisses this sign, which is seen on numerous  physical relics, as not bearing zodiacal resemblances without any solid evidence to the contrary (see. P. 197-198 for discussion)

    20. (The next) is a man bearing goods on a balance and standing in the market-place; it is the region of the navel, hips, and bladder. Its places are those of customs-duties, money, lyres, coins, cities, roads, caravanseries, and ripened grain. IN – Pingree dismisses this sign, which is seen on numerous  physical relics, as not bearing zodiacal resemblances without any solid evidence to the contrary (see. P. 197-198 for discussion)
    21. The eighth has the shape of a scorpion in its hole; it is said to be the region of the penis and anus of the Lord. Its places are caves, pits, and holes, poisonous and stony areas, prisons, and (the abodes of) ants, worms, boa-constrictors, and snakes. MP – Scorpion
    22. A man carrying a bow, one whose rear half is that of a horse, (is the ninth sign); they say this is the thighs of the Maker of the world. Its places are level land, (places where there are) horses both singly and in herds, alcoholic drinks, weapon-bearers, sacrifices, chariots, and horses. MP – The Archer?

    IN – Pingree dismisses this sign, which is seen on numerous  physical relics, as not bearing zodiacal resemblances without any solid evidence to the contrary (see. P. 197-198 for discussion)

    23. The tenth is pointed out as being a sea-monster (makara) whose front is like a deer’s, but whose hind-end is like a fish’s; they say this is the region of the knees of the Creator. Its places are rivers, forests, woods, paths and so forth, marshes, and pits. MP – Goatfish
    24. A pot being poured out (carried) on the shoulder of a man-this, the authorities say, is the eleventh (sign); it is the shanks. Its places are tanks, (fields of) poor grain, (haunts of) birds, and (areas suitable for) women, liquor-sellers, and gambling. IN – Pingree dismisses this sign, which is seen on numerous  physical relics, as not bearing zodiacal resemblances without any solid evidence to the contrary (see. P. 197-198 for discussion)
    25. The last sign is a pair of fish in water; it is called by the best (authorities) the feet of Kaala. Its places are auspicious ones, (where there are) gods and Brähmaës, pilgrimages, rivers, oceans, and clouds. EG – Water where Pisces swim

    GK – Only one zodiac source with water/fish

    IN -PA joined two fishes head to tail like GK convention, which Pingree claims is Greek origin with no proof, followed only by VY. Pingree dismisses this sign, which is seen on numerous  physical relics, as not bearing zodiacal resemblances without any solid evidence to the contrary (see. P. 197-198 for discussion)

    26. Thus has been told the circle of the divisions of the limbs of the Creator who made the circular surface of the earth; there is a mutual connection of the signs, marks, and qualities (indicated by the zodiacal signs) and the (corresponding) parts of the bodies of men. MELOTHESIA:

    EG – Pingree attributes melothesia to Egypt origin

    -Many variations of cosmic man come up in Babylon, Spain,  Hermetic works, and other places of the ancient world including TC who gave a medically orientated model.

    IN -Most Sanskrit works follow variant of cosmic man from lost work of BD. SP is closest to PY and borrowed from HS, which is followed by VH,PA,KV,GK,VY,MT. In GK works parallels DT and HP most.

    GK – Cnidian/Hippocratic school of medicine holds melothesia too and in a wide variety of western astrological texts such as FM, MS, VL, AT, SE, DT, RT,PP,et. el ( see p. 200 for all). Greek parallels to above Indian texts is FM which other authors do not differ much in MS, VL, SE, PA.


    27. The various kinds of places and people pertaining to (each) sign have been briefly recounted in order by the ancients; these (various kinds) with their fixed natures are to be regarded as having their places and actions in the places and limbs connected with the (various) signs. TOPOTHESIA:

    GK – Only known sources is HP , quotes Protagoras of Nicaea and fragment of DT talks of types of signs showing limited connection with this idea which Pingree does not translate or directly correlate to the Indian.

    -Many AB topothesiae correlate to SP closely, particularly AB & AM

    -IN topothesiae close to SP is MT and VY. Pingree fails to mention other Indian texts that include this and overlooks the almost complete absence in Greek work surrounding this topic.

    p.203 – 207

    28. For those who are authorities say that this world of the immovable and the movable has its essence in the Sun and the Moon. (In them) are seen its coming into being and its passing away; even in the circle of the constellations does it have its essence in them. Moveable/immoveable in Indian and Greek philosophy. Associating concept with Moon/Sun idea only in Indian philosophy ( Pingree only finds Shiva statement to Parvati in VY  – Pingree may not understand the philosophical concept here).


    29. The solar half (of the zodiac) begins with Magha (the first naksatra in Leo); the other half, the lunar, with Sarpa (the last naksatra in Cancer). The Sun gives the (zodiacal) signs to the planets in order, the lunar signs (are assigned) in reverse order. GK – PT, HP, PP

    IN –  KV, GK

    (appears to have left out some authors here)


    30. Others, however, state that every odd sign is solar, every even sign lunar; each solar sign is masculine and hard, each lunar sign feminine and soft. G – PT, PL, AT, TL

    IN – SY, MR, VH, PA, KV, GK, PP,VM, VY,MT


    31. In the odd signs, the first half is solar, the second lunar, they say; in the even signs, the Moon is lord of the first half, and the Sun of the second. IN – SY, MR, VH, PA, KV, GK, VM, PP, VY, MT,BK

    N/A in Greek texts


    32. As the Sun takes Leo because of its qualities and the Moon Cancer, so they give the remaining signs from (their own) lordships to (those of) the planets in direct and reverse order (respectively). GK – All follow this system

    IN – All follow this system


    33. In order (these planets) are Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter and Saturn. . . . Therefore they are said to be each the lord of two houses, one lunar and one solar GK – All follow this system

    IN – All follow this system


    34. The Horas (horai) are famous . . . . The Drekanas (dekanoi) are renowned for their acquisition of images and forms. More specific notes regarding these given below (39-44)


    35. There are portions (bhaagas) (of each sign), they say, belonging to the seven planets, and these (saptamsas) undergo modifications according to the planet. The navamsas, whose forms and actions (are taken into consideration) in genethlialogy, are (also) well known (as being useful) in making predictions, in calculating the periods of life (dashaas), and in determining the length of life More specific notes regarding these given below (39 -44)


    36. In (each) sign there are dvadasamsas (dodecamoria) which fill the sign with their own influences. There are subtle modifications in respect to height or depth of action when (their) influences are combined with those of the terms (trimsamsas). More specific notes regarding these given below (39-44)


    37. There are sixty solar portions (sauras) in each sign which are similar (to their signs) in what their involvement signifies. In each navamsa of two hundred (minutes) there are seventy-two ciidapadas IN –MR, KV. References in PA, VY, MT are different

    GK – Only in MA


    38. Eighteen hundred liptakas (lepta) are equal to thirty (degrees) ; in this (matter), the distinctions according to the qualities of each are (now) to be considered. Pingree merely defines these portions yet gives NO Greek reference.


    39. The first Hora (in a sign) belongs to the lord of the sign, the second to the lord of the eleventh sign (from it). The three Drekanas in it belong in order to the lord of that sign, to the lord of the twelfth sign, and to the lord of the eleventh sign. IN – Horā seen in VH, VM, GK,AY and others from above verse(31) .

    IN-This drekkanna only in VA, GK, AY . Variants of this rule used by SY, MR, VH, PA, KV, BK, GK, VM, PP, VY, MT, AT.

    GK – Had alternative drekāna rules in TC, RT, PP, FM, PA, GA, AY.

    No mention of Horā given for Greek texts.


    40. They say that the saptamsas belong to the lords of the signs (in order) beginning with the lord of the sign itself and excluding repetitions; similarly –the dvadasamshas are said to belong to the lords of the signs beginning with I (the lord of) the sign itself. D7:

    IN- This rule not followed by later Indian’s who used variants such as MR, SY, PA, KV,GK, VY, MT.

    N/A in Greek texts.


    IN – SP, MR, VH, PA, KV, GK, VM, PP, VY, MT.

    GK – Pingree gives no reference but Greek D12 discussed by Housman in an erroneous fashion according to Pingree.

    BB – Pingree considers Babylon as origin according to Neugebauer and Sachs


    41. The first navamshas in (the signs) beginning with the first (Aries) are said to belong (in order) to the lords of Aries, Capricorn, Libra, and Cancer; if one counts (in groups of three) the signs beginning with (the four signs specified above, then their first) navamshas belong (in order) to the lords of (these) four signs. IN – SP,MR, VH, KV, AY, BK, GK, VM, PP, VY, MT. (forgets PA and possibly others).

    AB – AM, DT

    N/A or known to west in antiquity    


    42. In the odd signs, five degrees (constitute the term) of Mars, five (that) of Saturn, eight (that) of Jupiter, seven (that) of Mercury, and five (that) of Venus; in the even signs, their order is reversed IN – SP, MR, VH, PA, KV, BK, GK, SK, VS, VM, PP, VY, MT (all Indian astrologers follow this form).

    GK – Quoted from various sources in VL, PT, HP, TC FM, PA AY, AM, GA show 5 methods of arranging these terms, but none related to SP and each with some variance.

    *extensive comparisons of types given and Pingree concludes that no parallels for this division found in Western antiquity but miraculously assumes it derives from Egypto-Greek source.


    43. The sauras, cudapadas, and liptikas are to be distributed through another zodiacal circle; each planet’s portion is said to be endowed with the nature of another planet according to the sign in which it is. No Commentary
    44. They call (a sign) a “collection” (rasi) in order to distinguish the activi-ties of these corresponding (parts) ; this is immeasurable like the waters of the sea because of doubts as to the variety of their mutual interrelationships No Commentary
    45. The (twelve) signs beginning with Aries are of three sorts, called movable, immovable, and two natured, with four (in each group) ; at every fourth (sign) is interposed a dividing line. They are influential (respectively) at the beginning, the middle, and the end of one’s life. IN –All follow this system

    GK – All follow this system



    46. Taurus and Gemini are town signs; Capricorn, Scorpio, and Leo are forest signs; Pisces, that which travels on water (Cancer), and that which lives in the sea (Capricorn) are marsh signs. IN – Seen across all texts with variants which Pingree discusses.

    GK – Many variants here, See Darmstadt for more.



    47. The native is born with his nature affected by the changes or constancies of these signs with their natures, forms, and characteristics; if (the sign’s) navamsa is in the path of a planet, then the natives feel the effect of that. See verse 46.
    48. The ascendent, which is the first sign, they call hora (horai), the fourth from it hipaka; one also finds it called rasatala (hell), the place of water, the place of the house, and the place of increase. Pingree only focuses on the term Horā seen in Greek texts without reference to these other terms. In this and verses 48-53 Pingree is most concerned with Greek nomenclature, ignoring many verses without consideration.


    49. The seventh place from the ascendent, the descendent, is called jamitra (diametros) in the language of the Greeks; the tenth from the ascendent, the mid-heaven, they say, is the mesurana (mesouranma). No sources mentioned other than Greek origin


    50. Those who are experts in horoscopy call these (four signs) the caturlagna (“four-fold ascendent”) or the lagnacatustaya (“square of the ascendent”). One finds that the place of the Moon and its square are called menyaiva among the Greeks No Commentary
    51. The fourth (place) from the first they call the quartile, the eighth death; one finds that the fifth is the simple trine (trikona), the ninth the trine of the trine Gives reference to Greek terms and texts without consideration of Indian texts


    52. They say that the sixth, which gives evil, is the satkona (“sextile”), the third the dushcikya; they call the eleventh the auspicious in every way, the twelfth the place of motion. No commentary
    53. They say that a caturvilagna-sign (“cardine”) is a kendra (kentron), the next group panaphara (epanaphora), and the third apoklima (apoklima) this is the three-fold designation of the ascendent (and so forth). IN – MR, VH, PA, KV, GK, VM, PP, VY, MT, and others.

    GK – Variants from HP,RT, PS, PA, PP, AT, MN, MS discussed.

    EG – Ideas discussed


    54. Know that the ascendent, (the second, and the twelfth) (are significant) with respect to property, body, thoughts, and so forth; the fourth, (the third, and the fifth) indicate things relating to the parents and children; and the descendent, (the sixth, and the eighth) indicate things relating to the wife and to coming and going, and (are significant) with respect to injuries such as illnesses No Greek sources mentioned  but says see 70-72.


    55. Know that the mid-heaven, (the ninth, and the eleventh) indicate things relating to sovereignty and various successes, and (are significant) with respect to the treasury and the army. Know that a cardine is made auspicious by benefit planets, even if they are weak, and inauspicious by malefic planets. No Greek sources mentioned  but says to see 70-72.


    56. So in these (cardines) is bound up the mundane creation, both good and bad, with all its results; and so also in them (is bound up) the birth (of individuals). No commentary
    57. They say that the third, sixth, tenth, and eleventh signs from the ascendent or from the Moon are upacaya (“increasing”), the rest apacaya (“decreasing”). IN – GA, SY, VH, PA, KV, GK, VM, PP, VY, MT.

    N/A in Greek sources.


    58. One finds that Aries, Taurus, Cancer, Libra, Pisces, Virgo, and Capricorn are the signs of exaltation of the Sun, the Moon, Jupiter, Saturn, Venus, Mercury, and Mars in that order . . . IN – Exaltations same in  SP, VH, PA, KV, GK, VM, PP, VY, MT though MR is different.

    GK – Much more variance across a variety of texts seen in FM, GA, DT, TC, VL, JC PP, MC.


    59. (The exaltation) of the Sun is in the tenth degree, of the Moon in the third, and of Jupiter in the fifth; one finds (that) of Saturn in the twentieth, of Venus in the twenty-seventh, and of Mercury in the fifteenth See 58.
    60. The entrance of Mars (into its exaltation) takes place in the twenty-eighth degree in the sign of its exaltation. They say that the sign opposite the exaltation and the degree having the same number (in that sign as the exaltation has in its sign) is the dejection. See 58.
    61. They say that the thirty degrees in (each of) the four cardines from the ascendent are called the spikes. In every sign the navamsha belonging to that sign is named by the Greeks the vargottama (“highest in rank”). IN – Mentioned by most all SY, MR, VH, PA, KV, AY, GK, VY, MT.

    N/A in Greek sources.  Greek here refers to Yavaneśvara as it does elsewhere.


    62. The mulatrikonas (“base-triplicities”) of Mars, the Moon, the Sun, Mercury, Venus, Jupiter, and Saturn are, in order, Aries, Taurus, Leo, Virgo, Libra, Sagittarius, and Aquarius IN – MR, VH, KV, GK, PA VS,UP, PP, VY, MT, PR.

    GK – N/A in Greek sources though DT/HP have slightly similar idea.


    63. The human signs together with Leo and Scorpio are said by the Greeks to rise head-first; Pisces rises both ways; and the rest always rise backwards IN – GA, SP, MR, KV, VM, GK, VT, PP, VY, PR, PA,MT, some have slight variations.

    GK-Not used in Greek system, Pingree only gives MS as reference who uses literal positions of constellations, ignorantly assuming an “error” in Indian system

    p.222 -223

    64. Excepting the second, sixth, eleventh, and twelfth signs from that in which it is, a planet always aspects the rest; their aspect is good when it is in good signs IN – MR, VH, KV, GK, PP, VY, PA, VS generally follow SP with PA having some additional details.

    GK – AT, PP, FM, PA, RT, HP, PT, HD, and others recognize variety of aspects though with some difference from the Indian system.


    65. The influence of the aspect is complete in opposition, less by a fourth in the two “squares” (the fourth and eighth places), a half in the two trines, and a fourth in the third and tenth signs See 64.
    66. With the revolution of the three (signs in a triplicity), the groups (of signs) beginning with the first (triplicity) are said to be in the directions beginning with East in order; in these the lords of the directions are the Sun and Venus, Mars, the Moon and Saturn, and Jupiter and Mercury. IN – SP, MR,VH, PA, KV, GK, PP, VY, MT, GN, KN,VT,SY, VM,RM and  quoted in others.

    GK – FM, AT, PA, TP, GA, TC, VL, AY, RH, JC, PT, et el.

    *Pingree goes into extensive comparison between the two and there is greater variation in the Greek texts than Indian systems, however he may not be clear on what is being presented


    67. When the signs are without planets, one tells from their power the arrangement of the door and the directions with respect to things which are lost, have been put down, or have disappeared, and with-respect to actions, childbirth, sleeping, or sexual intercourse. See 66.
    68. The measure of the rising-times of the first and last signs is demonstrated with certainty to be two muhurtas each; know that the measure of the rising-times (of the rest of the signs) in the two halves of the zodiac, taken (respectively) in direct and reverse order, is (two muhurtas) with a fifth (of that measure) added (successively to each). IN – SP, SY, VH, GK, VY.

    *Pingree attempts to reinterpret this verse and correlate it with Babylon and Greek texts sources, says to see other works for specifics.


    69. Knowing that the signs are thus measured as being short, medium, or long, they consider the lengths of journeys as being similar to the divisions of the zodiac (and the limbs of the zodiacal man). No Greek sources mentioned , says to see 68.
    70. One finds that the ascendant or the sign occupied by the Moon is the body, the second place the family; the third they say is the brother, and the fourth relations. IN – SP, MR, VH, PA, KV, GK, VM, PP, VY, MT and other texts are largely in line with these definitions.

    *Pingree claims these are an “eclectic” version of the Greek but gives no texts and says to see F. Cumonts work for more.


    71. The fifth place is called sons, the sixth they name the place of enemies; the seventh is the wife, and wise men say that the eighth is the place of death. No Greek sources mentioned  but says to see 70.
    72. One establishes the ninth as the place of righteousness, and they say the tenth is work; the eleventh is the gaining of wealth, the twelfth its loss. No Greek sources mentioned but says to see 70.
    73. Whatever significances there are in any signs which are in the places beginning with the ascendent in order, these (significances), because of the positional, temporal, or other strengths of the signs, take on the natures of the significances in the places. No Commentary
    74. When the benefit planets have entered into (the places) which are called “body” and so forth, they cause these (aspects of life associated with the places) to flourish; but when the malefic planets are there or (the benefits) oppressed in bad places, they harm them No Commentary
    75. Taking into consideration the good fortunes or bad fortunes of their places, which involve such things as the situations of the lords of the places and of the places themselves, the natures of the 5 signs, and their powerful, medium, or weak aspects, one arrives at the death of men (after tracing out the rest of their lives). No Commentary
    76. A planet in its sign of exaltation gives a four-fold result; one in its mulatrikona half of that; one in its own house a full result; one in the house of a friend a half; one in the house of an enemy a third; and one in its dejection a fourth. IN – SP, VH, VY,GK, KV, PP, PA,MT, KV,VS,KS

    GK – DT, PT,HP, AT,JC

    AB- AR,UF, AT,AM, AK, AR, AQ

    *variations between above texts and cultures discussed. Mainly discusses Arab sources, western/Greek sources only partially mention these placements.

    p.229 -230

    77. Planets in their enemies’ houses, in the signs of their dejections, overcome (in planetary conflicts), on bad “paths”, or entering into the Sun destroy the good results and increase the bad ones IN – SP, VH, KV, GV

    AB – AB

    N/A in Greek sources   


    78. The semicircle from the ascendent (through the sixth place) which is to come (above the horizon), they say, is strong, that which has risen (above the horizon) is weak. The cardines are the strongest of these (places), and they state that among them the strength of the ascendent is foremost No Commentary
    79. The human signs are best in the ascendent, the quadruped signs in the mid-heaven; the water signs are strong in the hypogee, the insect sign in the descendent, and the signs of two forms in the mid-heaven. IN – SP, MR, GG, VA, VS, KV, GK, VM, PP, VY. A math formula for this seen in PA, SP, DK.

    N/A in Greek sources


    80. The human signs are strong at the beginning of the day, the quadruped and the insect signs at mid-day, Leo at the end of the day, and the water signs at night; all the signs are said to be strong in the cardines. IN – SP,MR,VH, VS, GK, VM, VY, KV,DT (variations seen)

    N/A in Greek sources


    81. The first four signs, Sagittarius, and Capricorn are strong at night, but the experts say that the second group of four signs together with Aquarius and Pisces are diurnal. IN – SP, MR, VH, PA, KV, VY, PP, VY, PR agree. Variation seen in AY, MV.

    GK – some variations seen in MS, HP, AY


    82. Those signs-ascendent and so on-are strong which are joined with their lords, the planets whose exaltations they are, ,Jupiter, or Mercury, or which are aspected by these (planets), if they are not aspected by other planets which are in the second or eleventh place IN – SP,SY, KV, MR, VH, PA, SP, VS, GK, VY, MT (variation seen)

    GK – only first part (82?) in TL, PT, HP, VL, AT, PP, PA, RT, SE,FC


    83. Saturn, Jupiter, and the Sun are strong in the day-time, Mars, Venus, and the Moon at night; Mercury is strong either by day or at night. The benefits are strong in the bright paksa (from new moon to full moon), the others in the dark (from full moon to new). See 82 (reference is confusing here).

    This section N/A in Greek texts.

    84. Jupiter, Mars, the Sun, and Venus are strong to the North (of the equator), Saturn and the Moon to the South, and Mercury in both. All the planets are strong in their own vargas, when they have overcome their enemies, and when they are brilliant. IN – SP,KV,SP,GK, PP, VY, MT, PA, KV, SY, MR, VH, VM, VY, MT ( some variations on this and parts of sloka seen in each text)

    N/A in Greek sources


    85. They are strong in retrogression, when leaving the Sun, and when they have just risen; the masculine planets are strong at the beginnings of the places, the feminine at the end, and the neuter in the middle. Retrogression:

    IN – SP, SY, KV, MR, VH, GK, VM, PP, VY, MT, PR

    GK – PS,DT, VL, PP, PM, GA (differing views here)

    AB – AM

    Leaving sun:

    GK: PS, HP, PT, PP, RT, KC, CC,

    IN: SP, KV, PP

    Just Risen:

    GK- PS, RT, PP, GA, HP, PT, AT, PA VL,

    IN – SP, YR, KV

    Masculine, neuter, etc:

    IN – KV, YR, GK, MT, PP, VY, VH, VY

    N/A in Greek sources

    *Pingree may have missed similar concepts in other texts here that are given in a different format (i.e. PA has teachings on the last distinction in shad bala calculations though is not listed here)

    P.234 -235

    86. The Moon is strong in the first part of the night, Venus at midnight, and Mars at the end of the night; Mercury is strong in the morning, the Sun at mid-day, Saturn at the end of the day, and Jupiter always. IN – SP, PA, SP, VS, KS, GK, SY, KV, SY, MR, VH, PP, VY, MT ( some variations)

    N/A in Greek sources


    87. They have their greatest strength in their exaltations, are of medium strength in their mulatrikonas and houses, and have their least strength when aspected by benefit planets or when in their friends’ houses IN – SP, KV, SY, MR, VH, VS, GK, VM, PP, VY ( some variations)

    N/A in Greek sources though Pingree lists something similar in PS, PT, PP, RT, GA, AY, HP, AT without translating it.


    88. Jupiter and Mercury are strong in the ascendent, the Sun and Mars in mid-heaven, Saturn in the descendent, and Venus and the Moon in the hypogee. IN – SP, MR, VH, VS, PA, KV, SP, GK, VM, PP, VY, MT

    *Pingee confuses digbala here with lords of directions in 66-67 and only sees possible Greek parallels discussed in 1,85 though no sources given otherwise.


    89. If a month is taken to begin with the first day of the bright paksha, in the first ten tithis the Moon is of medium strength, in the second it is at its greatest strength, and in the third at its least; but it is always strong if it is aspected by benefit planets IN –SP, KV, MR?, PP

    N/A in Greek sources


    90. The strength of a planet is established in three ways in determining about all actions-according to time, according to position, and according to strong aspects No Commentary
    91. One finds strength in the ascendent when it is conjoined with or aspected by its own lord or by the lord of the exaltation which is in it, or when it is conjoined with Jupiter, Venus, and Mercury; but the ascendent has little strength in the two twilights Suggests to compare with 1,82
    92. This is said to be the method of determining the strength or weakness of the signs and planets according to the teaching of the Greeks; they say that, of the complete set of influences in horoscopy, there is an enormous number . . . . No Commentary
    93. Through the influence of the places and of the planets in them, which have’ the greatest, medium, the least, or no strength at the times of the natives’ births, men are born with the greatest, medium, or least strength. No Commentary
    94. The planets in the cardines exercise their influence in the first part of life, those in the succedent places in middle age, and those in the cadent places (apoklimas) in old age; (in each group) the order of precedence is determined according to their strengths. IN – SY, KV, MR, VH, SP, GK, PP

    N/A in Greek sources, though Pingree suggest to see chapters 37-41 and 39.6-7 for commentary on Greek methods of timing.


    95. At the commencement of life, one says that these are the three (groups) . . . in use; by means of these three, according to their strengths at the time of the child’s birth, one finds his condition (in each period of his life). IN – VH, KV, GK, PP has associated verses.

    No Greek sources mentioned, but suggest to see 1.48-53 for Greek thoughts on this


    96. If the lord of the birth, the lord of the ascendent, or Jupiter is strong and in the ascendent, it exercises its influence at the time (of one) of (the native’s) four ages depending upon which of the four cardines it is in. IN – VH, KV, GK, PP have similar.

    No Greek sources mentioned but suggests to see 1.48-53 commentary for Greek antecedents.


    97. If the lord of the birth or a planet possessing its qualities and strength is in its exaltation, or in a cardine in its own varga, or in its own house not aspected by malefic planets, then it exercises its influence at the time of birth. IN – PP, PR

    GK – Gives variations seen in FC, PT, VL, AG/HP, PP, HP, PTRT, AT, DT, MT


    98. Thus they say that, of the many combinations, these are the yogas which produce complete happiness; whereas, if the planets were in their dejections or their enemies’ houses, it would produce complete misery IN – See KV 40.6-7 and Yavanajātaka 39.8-9

    N/A in Greek sources


    99. Planets in signs which rise head-first are strong at the beginnings of their periods; those in signs which rise backwards at the ends; and those in signs which rise both ways exercise their influence in the middles IN – UT,GG, VH, KV, GK

    N/A in Greek sources


    100. Those planets which are at the beginning, end, or middle of the ascendant or the sign occupied by the Moon at birth are effective with their good or bad influences at the beginning, end, or middle of their periods respectively. No references given


    101. Those navamshas which are at the boundaries of the places at birth are considered to be in them (completely); but, except for the vargottamamshas, all those at the ascendent are considered to be malefic. IN – Defined in 1.61. For ascendant effects see VH.

    N/A in Greek sources


    102. The benefit planets, when they are in the upacaya places from the ascendent, cause the births of wealthy people; when they are (in the upacaya places) from the Moon, they cause the births of men with many good qualities. The malefic planets, however, (in similar situations cause the births) of lepers, paupers, and men who are lazy. IN – defined in 1.57. See VH, KV,GK for more.

    N/A in Greek sources


    103. The Moon in the cardines of the Sun produces fools, paupers, and those who are mischievous and without character; in the next (four signs) it causes the birth of wealthy men; and in the cadent signs of those who are born at the heads of their families. IN – Alternate approach in VH, PA, KV, GK, PP

    N/A in Greek sources


    104. If (two) men are born with the ascendent or a cardine of the one in the other’s place, they are mutually helpful-or if they are born under signs (belonging to planets which are) mutually friendly. Relates this verse to 105-108


    105. The planets which are in the second, fourth, fifth, ninth, and twelfth places from another planet’s mulatrikona are its temporary friends, as is the weak planet in its exaltation IN – SY, MR, VH, VS, SR, PA, KV, GK, VM, PP, VY, MT, PR, KS

    N/A in Greek sources

    p.238 -240

    106. The planets which are in the first, third, sixth, seventh, eighth, tenth, and eleventh places are the temporary enemies. I shall call these the “base” (maula) friends and enemies. N/A in Greek sources

    See 105

    107. Jupiter is the friend of the Sun, but the rest are its enemies; all except Mars are the friends of Jupiter; all except the Sun are the friends of Mercury; and all except the Sun and the Moon are the friends of Venus IN – notes VH, GK though see 103-104 for more commentary.

    N/A in Greek sources


    108. One finds that Venus and Mercury are the friends of Mars, Jupiter and Mercury of the Moon, and all except Mars, the Sun, and the Moon of Saturn; know that the rest are enemies, and that the same relationships hold 4 among the men (born under the influence of the several planets). N/A in Greek sources

    See 107

    109. Saturn, Mars, and the Sun are always malefic, Jupiter, Venus, and the Moon benefit. Mercury is benefit when it is not mixed with the other (planets) or their vargas; (when it is so mixed), it takes on a nature similar to theirs IN – SY, MR, VH, VS, KV, GK, MT, VT, VY,VM, PP,BV some variation around Me/Mo/Nodes

    GK – Wide range of opinions seen in PT,HP, JL, SE, PA, RT,DT,PL, PC, TP, BB

    p.240 -242

    110. The malefic planets are hot, the benefit cold, and Mercury has a mixed nature; because of these is the result of time in the world the same with regard to things relating to generation and to decay. No Commentary
    111. There are said to be five great elements (mahabhutani)-earth, fire, water, air, and wind; their connections, from the body of the (cosmic) man (the zodiac), are Mercury, Mars, Venus, Jupiter, and Saturn. IN – VH, PA, KV, GK, PP, VY, MT, VS

    *Elements/Planets not seen in Greek texts though Pingree erroneously reconstructs a table based around mention of qualities in these sources (i.e. Saturn=dry/cold=earth). Since elements are the basis of Vedic science, this is a key sloka refuting Pingree’s thesis as well as understanding of any of this.


    112. All of the principles of existence (sattvani) are life, love, knowledge, speech, truthfulness, ignorance, and mind; they pervade respectively the Sun, Venus, Jupiter, Mercury, Mars, Saturn, and the Moon. IN – VH, PA, GK, AY, VY, PP, MT, and others.

    GK- TB, VL, AT, PP, TP, SV, IS, BD, and possibly others.

    *PIngree calls these “psychological factors” (though they seem like basic karakas) and says to see in conjunction with 1.122. His referenced texts above appear to loosely fit with this list, though not necessarily.


    113. Bile is from Mars, bile and phlegm from the Sun, phlegm and wind from Jupiter and the Moon, phlegm from Venus, wind from Saturn, and wind mixed with the quality of its position from Mercury IN – SY,VH, VS, PA, KV, GK, AY, PP, MT

    GK – TB, RT, VL

    AB – AM, AY


    114. Jupiter, Mars, and the Sun are of excellence (sattva), Venus and the Moon of passion (rajas), and Saturn of ignorance (tamas); Mercury accepts the other characteristics depending on which planet it is in conjunction with. IN – Different system seen in SY, MR, VH, PA, KV, GK, AY, VY, MT, PP

    N/A in Greek sources

    *Pingree explains the system here is in connection with colors/sexes of planets versus later authors who used character of planets

    p.244 – 246

    115. Jupiter, Mars, and the Sun are masculine, Venus and the Moon femi-nine; Saturn and Mercury are neuter, their sex depending on their situations. IN – MR, VH, PA, KV, VS, SP, GK, VM, AY, VY,PP largely in congruence

    GK – PT, HP, RT,PP with some variation.


    116. One finds that the Sun and the Moon are king, Mars a general, Mercury a prince, Jupiter and Venus advisors, and Saturn a slave. These categories apply on earth (among those under the influence of the several planets). IN – VH, PA, KV, GK, VY

    GK – SE, TC, VL, RT,GA,JL (some variation)

    EG – PS, NC

    *Pingree says to compare to 60,32-33.


    117. Jupiter is the caste-lord of Brahmanas, and so is Venus; Mars and the Sun are the caste-lords of Kshatriyas; Mercury and the Moon of Vaishyas; and Saturn of Sudras. IN-MR, PA, KS, SY, VH, KV, SP, GK, VM, VY, MT, PP

    N/A in Greek Sources. Pingree tries to claim these are based off the royal court which he claims is of Greek origin without substantiation.


    118. When the planets are victorious, so are their castes; but when they are shattered, their castes also are shattered and their qualities are co-mingled . . . . N/A in Greek Sources

    See 117.

    119. The associations, acquisitions, misfortunes, and possessions (of the natives) depend upon the planets’ situations; by their natures they cause (the native) to be accompanied by good friends, wealth, sons, and wives. No Commentary                                                                            
    120. Objects are green, coppery, red, white, black, silvery, or yellow; such are the colors (respectively) of Mercury, the Sun, Mars, Venus, Saturn, the Moon, and Jupiter IN – MR, VH, VS, KV, GK, VY in concordance

    GK – Many variations on this subject seen in VL, PP, RT, AT, GA,TC, and others

    *Some discussion of origin of scheme from Babylonia hard to prove

    p.248 -250

    121. Father, mother, brother, wife, relative, son, and slave of the natives; such are the natures (respectively) of the Sun, the Moon, Mars, Venus, Jupiter, Mercury, and Saturn. IN – KV, VH, VY, GK, MT, MT, AY, VS


    *minor variations in some of the above

    p.250 -251

    122. The strength, old age, activity, happiness, sexual intercourse, intelligence, and status of men are from these planets through unalterable laws: Mars, Saturn, the Sun, Jupiter, Venus, Mercury, and the Moon. Says to see  1,112.
    123. The Sun is a handsome, square-limbed man, whose sparse hair is soft and curly and has loose ends. His eyes are sweet and wide in the description of Yavanesvara; his body gleams like molten gold. For verses 123-136 Pingree claims to have “proven” the “true intent” of these verses (despite his inability to translate simple concepts as pointed out above) and how they supposedly derived from Greek sources in his paper “ Representation of the Planets in Indian Astrology”. Instead Pingree closes out Chapter 1 by discussing only physiology, once again showing large variation within the Greek texts, a standard tradition across the Indian texts, and illogically claims it must have derived from a Greek source without any solid arguments to this fact.

    p.251 -252

    124. It is his nature to be inscrutable and firm; he is a fierce, steadfast hero who is hard to assail, a powerful leader whose body-hair is yellow like purified gold and whose deeds are swift and cruel. His essence is of bone. See 123.
    125. The Moon is white, shining, and handsome, with an appearance like that of smooth waters. His hair is fine and curly, his eyes wide, and his body beautiful in its symmetry; he is a youthful lover with a charming and spotless form. See 123.
    126. He is wise, patient, and fond of courtesy, controlling himself in accordance with the laws of Manu. Speaking kindly and clothed in spotless garments, the playful Moon with pleasing eyes laughs softly and sweetly. His nature is of (the woman’s) blood in sexual intercourse. See 123.
    127. Venus is graceful, having pleasing eyes and broad face, eyes, cheeks, and chest. He shines like silver, his smooth, fine, black hair hanging down with curly ends. See 123.
    128. His thighs, arms, belly, and shoulders are heavy and drooping; his body is made beautiful by bright-colored garments and garlands. He is given over to a love of instrumental music, dancing, singing, beauty, sport, and sexual intercourse. His essence is semen. See 123.
    129. Jupiter is yellow like ivory and gold and has a short, broad, fleshy, erect body. He speaks deeply, and his eyes and body-hair are sweet. He is pre-eminent in intelligence, memory, firmness, and resoluteness See 123.
    130. He bears authority in decisions relating to the Vedic sciences, sacrifices, sacred learning, politics, law, and the composition of poetry. Clad in white and with his hair tied up and matted, and with upright head, he is hard to assail. His essence is fat See 123.
    131. Mercury’s intellect is full and pure, his body dark, his curls (as dark as) duurva-grass, and his eyes handsome. He is pre-eminent in the composition of poetry, in craftsmanship, and in the arts, and is charming because of his gracefulness, jests, and so forth. See 123.
    132. He is clothed in green; he is weak, defective( ?), and rotund. His speech is clear and cheerful, his body soft and of medium size. He has an unstable nature, taking on the characters of others and allowing his own to disappear. His essence is of skin. See 123.
    133. Mars is a hot and passionate man with flaming curly hair and a terrible red body. The corners of his eyes are bloodshot, and he shines like blazing fire; he is powerful in his vehemence and terrifying like Kumara See 123.
    134. He is short and slender, with shining finger-nails and firm limbs. His speech is clear and pure. He is a hero, used to killing, taking, and opposing; clothed in red, he commits acts of violence and strength. His essence is of marrow See 123.
    135. Saturn has brown, inscrutable eyes. He is strong, but his limbs are curved by the bending of his head. He is tall and has thick, black, rough, and dreadful hair, and nails and teeth which are discolored and broken See 123.
    136. He is mean and very irascible; his actions are evil. Accustomed to hatred, he is a malicious master. In his black garments and looking like collyrium, thin and lazy Saturn has abandoned joy. His essence is of sinew See 123.
    137. They say that, if the planets are in the cardines in their own vargas and if they have temporal or other strength, then the natives have situations, castes, shapes, essences, and powers like theirs No Commentary
    138. As these planets are strong and occupy their own dvadasamias, navamsas, and houses, they cause similar perfections of creation in the bringing forth of the limbs of men. No Commentary
    139. When the planets are not in their own vargas, then the signs and so forth are said to be strong, and it is by means of the natures of the vargas-according to the planets (which rule them)-that one decides upon the changes and complications (which affect the natives). No Commentary


    Pingree says to see his paper “ The Indian Iconography of the Decans and Horās” where he claims to have proven that Sphujidhvaja was translating Greek images into Indian Iconography from the unknown Greek text he was copying. Based on the above first chapter alone, it is absurd to conclude he was copying any text and such claims as well as this paper should be examined with circumspect.

  • 08 Vedic Greek Comparison

    Many western people believe that David Pingree proved that Vedic Astrology came from Greece, without critically looking at why. Below, based on the Yavana Jataka notes of David Pingree, is a comparison of techniques found in the Sanskrit Yavana Jataka and other Greek/Latin Astrological Literature. The large amount of common Indian techniques in the Yavana Jataka not found anywhere in Greek or Latin sources does not prove anything came from Greece, but instead that Greece was a much later recipient of Classical Astrology from Babylonians, Egyptians and India.  The final argument that there are some Greek words in Indian texts, written at a time period when Greek was an international language and there was a large thriving Indo-Greek Kingdom in Afganistan does not prove Vedic culture sourced material from the Greeks over their Babylonian neighbors. The facts reveal themselves when you study the chart below which is based on Pingree’s own notes to Yavana Jataka.

    Principle Yavanajataka ( and others) Greeks
    12 sign zodiac X X
    Zodiac associated with body parts X X
    Zodiac associated with physical locations X Limited/a few fragments
    Solar/Lunar halves of Zodiac X X
    Odd signs masculine/ Even signs feminine X X
    Basic horā delination of first half odd signs = solar / even =lunar,etc. X N/A
    Common Lordship of signs ( i.e. Aries/Mars, Taurus/Venus,etc.) X X
    60th division of sign /saura X Only in Manilius
    Hora using lord of sign and 11th there from it. (D2) X N/A
    Drekanna (D3) X X
    Saptāmśa (D7) X N/A
    Dvādaśamśa (D12) X ?
    Navāmśa (D9) X N/A
    Trimśāmśa (5 parts of a sign) X N/A (some comparable calculations though)
    Moveable, fixed,dual signs X X
    Relating signs to various categories including town,marsh, forest, quadraped, human, insect, and other variations. X X
    Importance of sign designations such as kednra,panaphara, and apoklimas X X
    Upachaya places X N/A
    Exaltation points of planets X (nearly all agree) X – (much variance across texts)
    Vargottama X N/A
    Mulatrikona X N/A – ( some minimal associations)
    Back/Head/Both rising for signs X N/A – only descriptions of literal constellation position seen
    Aspects on 7th, 5-9,4-8,3-10 X X – (use 7, 4-10,5-9, and 3-11)
    Planets associated with directions X X
    Basic 12 house meanings


    X X
    Placements of exaltation, own house, etc. X X ( some differences – no mulatrikona, friends, enemy house, etc.)
    Human, quadraped, insect signs X N/A
    Night/day signs/kālabala) X X (not clear how it is used and more limited forms)
    ceṣṭābala X X (more limited uses)
    digbāla X N/A
    Strength of moon based on thitis X N/A
    Various signs/placements associated with  early, mid, late life X N/A
    Temporary/natural friendships and combined influence X X
    Benefic/maleifc planets X X
    Associating planets with elements X N/A
    Planets related to “humors” ( phlegm/kapha,etc.) X X
    Planets related to gunas ( sattva,etc.) X N/A
    Sex of planets X X
    Roya Court ( king, queen,etc.) X X
    Planets and Caste X N/A
    Planets and Colors X X ( much more variance here across authors)
    Planets/family memebrs X X
    Basic planetary descriptions and karaka associations X X

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